This study grouped treatment-seeking individuals (n = 1825) by common patterns of 12-step attendance using 5 waves of data (75% interviewed Year 9) to isolate unique characteristics and use-related outcomes distinguishing each class profile. The "high" class reported the highest attendance and abstention. The "descending" class reported high baseline alcohol severity, long treatment episodes, and high initial attendance and abstinence, but by Year 5, their attendance and abstinence dropped. The "early-drop" class, which started with high attendance and abstinence but with low problem severity, reported no attendance after Year 1. The "rising" class, with fairly high alcohol and psychiatric severity throughout, reported initially low attendance, followed by increasing attendance paralleling their abstention. Last, the "low" and "no" classes, which reported low problem severity and very low/no attendance, had the lowest abstention. Female gender and high alcohol severity predicted attendance all years. Consistent with a sustained benefit for 12-step exposure, abstinence patterns aligned much like attendance profiles.
"These findings are consistent with Andersen and Newman's (2005) framework examining determinants of medical care utilization, in which a lower level of perceived need is associated with less use of help resources. It is also consistent with prior findings that severe substance use and related life problems are associated with sustained participation in AA (Timko, Billow, & DeBenedetti, 2006; Witbrodt et al., 2012). Dropouts were also more likely to use aspects of approach coping, which is associated with better adjustment than is avoidance coping (Taylor & Stanton, 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Al-Anon Family Groups (Al-Anon), a 12-step mutual-help program for people concerned about another’s drinking, is the most widely used form of help for concerned others (COs) in the US. This study assessed the prevalence of dropout, and predictors of dropout, in the six months following newcomers’ initial attendance at Al-Anon meetings. Al-Anon’s World Service Office mailed a random sample of groups, which subsequently yielded a sample of 251 newcomers who completed surveys at baseline and 6 months later. At the 6-month follow-up, 57% of newcomers at baseline had dropped out (had not attended any Al-Anon meetings during the past month). At baseline, individuals who later dropped out of Al-Anon were less likely to have been referred to Al-Anon by their drinker’s health care provider, and reported less severe problems than individuals who continued to attend, but dropouts were more often concerned about their drinker’s psychological health; newcomers with these concerns may have found them incompatible with Al-Anon’s philosophy. Dropouts reported high rates of problems, suggesting that COs who drop out of Al-Anon would benefit from ongoing help and support.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examines 12-Step attendance trajectories over 7 years, factors associated with the trajectories, and relationships between the trajectories and long-term substance use outcomes among adolescents entering out-patient substance use treatment in a private, non-profit integrated managed-care health plan.
Longitudinal observational study.
Four Kaiser Permanente Northern California substance use treatment programs.
A total of 391 adolescents entering treatment between 2000 and 2002 who completed at least one follow-up interview in year 1, and at least one during years 3-7, after treatment entry.
Alcohol and drug use, 12-Step meeting attendance and activity involvement and post-treatment medical service utilization.
Semiparametric group-based modeling identified three distinct 12-Step attendance trajectory groups over 7 years: low/no attendance (60%), early but not continued (26%) and continued (14%). There were lower proportions of males and of adolescents with prior substance use treatment experience in the low/no attendance group (P = 0.019 and P = 0.003, respectively). In addition, those in the low/no attendance group had lower perception on circumstances, motivation and readiness for treatment at baseline (P = 0.023). Multivariate logistic generalized estimating equation analyses found that those in the continued group were more likely to be abstinent from both alcohol and drugs during follow-ups than those in the low/no attendance group [odds ratio (OR) = 2.40, P = 0.003 and OR = 1.96, P = 0.026, respectively]. However, no differences in long-term outcomes were found between those in the other two groups.
Robust connection with 12-Step groups appears to be associated with better long-term outcomes among adolescents with substance use disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment of alcohol and other drugs is now more commonly framed in terms of a chronic condition which requires ongoing monitoring. A model which includes continuing access to health care may optimize outcomes. Most studies of chronic care models have not included health care and have only examined short term effects.
The sample (n = 783) included consecutive admissions in ten public and private alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment programs followed over seven years. The outcome was remission which was defined as alcohol and drug abstinence or non-problem use.
In the private sample, receiving health care services predicted remission across the seven years; however this did not occur in the public sample. More patients in the public treatment sample received AOD treatment readmissions each year, while more of those in the private sector received psychiatric and general health visits. Except for drug problem severity, there were no other clinical differences between the samples. There were no differences in the proportions of patients in the two sectors who received the full spectrum of chronic care services. In the final models, 12-step participation was markedly significant for both samples.
Models of chronic care for substance use need to consider differences between private and public treatment and should take into account that individuals may not always have access, or avail themselves of services that may optimize long-term outcomes.
Drug and alcohol dependence 12/2011; 124(1-2):57-62. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.12.006 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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