The Highly Energetic Expansion of SN2010bh Associated with GRB 100316D

The Astrophysical Journal (Impact Factor: 5.99). 11/2011; 753(1). DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/753/1/67
Source: arXiv


We present the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the nearby (z =
0.059) spectroscopically confirmed type Ic supernova, SN 2010bh, associated
with the soft, long-duration gamma-ray burst (X-ray flash) GRB 100316D.
Intensive follow-up observations of SN 2010bh were performed at the ESO Very
Large Telescope (VLT) using the X-shooter and FORS2 instruments. Owing to the
detailed temporal coverage and the extended wavelength range (3000--24800 A),
we obtained an unprecedentedly rich spectral sequence among the hypernovae,
making SN 2010bh one of the best studied representatives of this SN class. We
find that SN 2010bh has a more rapid rise to maximum brightness (8.0 +/- 1.0
rest-frame days) and a fainter absolute peak luminosity (L_bol~3e42 erg/s) than
previously observed SN events associated with GRBs. Our estimate of the ejected
(56)Ni mass is 0.12 +/- 0.02 Msun. From the broad spectral features we measure
expansion velocities up to 47,000 km/s, higher than those of SNe 1998bw (GRB
980425) and 2006aj (GRB 060218). Helium absorption lines He I lambda5876 and He
I 1.083 microm, blueshifted by ~20,000--30,000 km/s and ~28,000--38,000 km/s,
respectively, may be present in the optical spectra. However, the lack of
coverage of the He I 2.058 microm line prevents us from confirming such
identifications. The nebular spectrum, taken at ~186 days after the explosion,
shows a broad but faint [O I] emission at 6340 A. The light-curve shape and
photospheric expansion velocities of SN 2010bh suggest that we witnessed a
highly energetic explosion with a small ejected mass (E_k ~ 1e52 erg and M_ej ~
3 Msun). The observed properties of SN 2010bh further extend the heterogeneity
of the class of GRB supernovae.

Download full-text


Available from: David Bersier,
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The bipolarity of Supernova 1987A can be understood through its very early light curve observed from the CTIO 0.4-m telescope and IUE FES, and following speckle observations of the `Mystery Spot' by two groups. These indicate a highly directional beam/jet of light/particles, with initial collimation factors in excess of 10,000 and velocities in excess of 0.95 c, as an impulsive event of up to 1e-5 solar masses interacting with circumstellar material. These can be produced by a model proposed in 1972, by Bolotovskii and Ginzburg, which employs pulsar emission from polarization currents induced/(modulated faster than c) beyond the pulsar light cylinder by the periodic electromagnetic field (supraluminally induced polarization currents -- SLIP). SLIP accounts for the disruption of progenitors in supernova explosions and their anomalous dimming at cosmological distances, jets from Sco X-1 and SS 433, the lack/presence of intermittent pulsations from the high/low luminosity low mass X-ray binaries, long/short gamma-ray bursts and predicts that their afterglows are the pulsed optical/near infrared emission associated with these pulsars. SLIP may also account for the TeV e+/e- results from PAMELA and ATIC, the WMAP `Haze'/Fermi `Bubbles', and the r-process. SLIP jets from SNe of the first stars may allow galaxies to form without dark matter, and explain the peculiar, non-gravitational motions observed from pairs of distant galaxies by GALEX.
    Advances in Astronomy 05/2012; 2012(6140). DOI:10.1155/2012/898907 · 1.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The association of Type Ic SNe with long-duration GRBs is well established. We endeavor, through accurate ground-based observational campaigns, to characterize these SNe at increasingly high redshifts. We obtained a series of optical photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Type Ic SN2012bz associated with the Swift long-duration GRB120422A (z=0.283) using the 3.6-m TNG and the 8.2-m VLT telescopes. The peak times of the light curves of SN2012bz in various optical filters differ, with the B-band and i'-band light curves reaching maximum at ~9 and ~23 rest-frame days, respectively. The bolometric light curve has been derived from individual bands photometric measurements, but no correction for the unknown contribution in the near-infrared (probably around 10-15%) has been applied. Therefore, the present light curve should be considered as a lower limit to the actual UV-optical-IR bolometric light curve. This pseudo-bolometric curve reaches its maximum (Mbol = -18.56 +/- 0.06) at 13 +/- 1 rest-frame days; it is similar in shape and luminosity to the bolometric light curves of the SNe associated with z<0.2 GRBs and more luminous than those of SNe associated with XRFs. A comparison with the model generated for the bolometric light curve of SN2003dh suggests that SN2012bz produced only about 15% less 56Ni than SN2003dh, about 0.35 Msol. Similarly the VLT spectra of SN2012bz, after correction for Galactic extinction and for the contribution of the host galaxy, suggest comparable explosion parameters with those observed in SN2003dh (EK~3.5 x 10^52 erg, Mej~7 Msol) and a similar progenitor mass (~25-40 Msol). GRB120422A is consistent with the Epeak-Eiso and the EX,iso-Egamma,iso-E_peak relations. GRB120422A/SN2012bz shows the GRB-SN connection at the highest redshift so far accurately monitored both photometrically and spectroscopically.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2012; 547. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201219879 · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper we present the results of the radio light curve and X-ray observations of broad-lined Type Ic SN 2007bg. The light curve shows three distinct phases of spectral and temporal evolution, implying that the SNe shock likely encountered at least 3 different circumstellar medium regimes. We interpret this as the progenitor of SN 2007bg having at least two distinct mass-loss episodes (i.e., phases 1 and 3) during its final stages of evolution, yielding a highly-stratified circumstellar medium. Modelling the phase 1 light curve as a freely-expanding, synchrotron-emitting shell, self-absorbed by its own radiating electrons, requires a progenitor mass-loss rate of \dot{M}~1.9x10^{-6}(v_{w}/1000 km s^{-1}) Solar masses per year for the last t~20(v_{w}/1000 km s^{-1}) yr before explosion, and a total energy of the radio emitting ejecta of E\sim1x10^{48} erg after 10 days from explosion. This places SN 2007bg among the most energetic Type Ib/c events. We interpret the second phase as a sparser "gap" region between the two winds stages. Phase 3 shows a second absorption turn-on before rising to a peak luminosity 2.6 times higher than in phase 1. Assuming this luminosity jump is due to a circumstellar medium density enhancement from a faster previous mass-loss episode, we estimate that the phase 3 mass-loss rate could be as high as \dot{M}<~4.3x10^{-4}(v_{w}/1000 km s^{-1}) Solar masses per year. The phase 3 wind would have transitioned directly into the phase 1 wind for a wind speed difference of ~2. In summary, the radio light curve provides robust evidence for dramatic global changes in at least some Ic-BL progenitors just prior (~10-1000 yr) to explosion. The observed luminosity of this SN is the highest observed for a non-gamma-ray-burst broad-lined Type Ic SN, reaching L_{8.46 GHz}~1x10^{29} erg Hz^{-1} s^{-1}, ~567 days after explosion.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2012; 428(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/sts104 · 5.11 Impact Factor
Show more