I-SAVE Study: Impact of Sedation, Analgesia and Delirium Protocols Evaluated in the Intensive Care Unit: An Economic Evaluation

Pharmacy Department, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Annals of Pharmacotherapy (Impact Factor: 2.92). 12/2011; 46(1):21-8. DOI: 10.1345/aph.1Q284
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Intensive care units (ICUs) account for considerable health care costs. Adequate pain and sedation management is important to clinical care.
To determine whether implementing a protocol for management of analgesia, sedation, and delirium in the ICU would save costs.
With data from the I-SAVE (Impact of Sedation, Analgesia and Delirium Protocols Evaluated in the Intensive Care Unit: an Economic Evaluation) study, a prospective pre- and postprotocol design was used. Between the 2 periods, protocols for systematic management of sedation, analgesia, and delirium were implemented. Cost-effectiveness was calculated by associating the variation of cost and effectiveness measures (proportion of patients within targeted pain, sedation, and delirium goals). Total costs (in 2004 Canadian dollars), by patient, consisted of the sum of sedation, analgesia, and delirium drug acquisition costs during the ICU stay and the cost of the ICU stay.
A total of 1214 patients, 604 in the preprotocol group and 610 in the postprotocol group, were included. The mean (SD) ICU length of stay and the duration of mechanical ventilation were shorter among patients of the postprotocol group compared with those of the preprotocol group (5.43 [6.43] and 6.39 [8.05] days, respectively; p = 0.004 and 5.95 [6.80] and 7.27 [9.09] days, respectively; p < 0.009). The incidence of delirium remained the same. The proportion of patients with Richmond Agitation and Sedation (RASS) scores between -1 and +1 increased from 57.0% to 66.2% (p = 0.001), whereas the proportion of patients with a numeric rating scale (NRS) score of 1 or less increased from 56.3% to 66.6% (p < 0.001). The mean total cost of ICU hospitalization decreased from $6212.64 (7846.86) in the preprotocol group to $5279.90 (6263.91) in the postprotocol group (p = 0.022). The cost analyses for pain and agitation management improved; the proportion of patients with RASS scores between -1 and +1 or NRS scores of 1 or less increased significantly in the postprotocol group while costing, on average, $932.74 less per hospitalization.
Establishing protocols for patient-driven management of sedation, analgesia, and delirium is a cost-effective practice and allows savings of nearly $1000 per hospitalization.

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Available from: Yoanna Skrobik, Jan 31, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Severe sepsis is a time-dependent disease, and implementation of early treatment has been associated with mortality rate reduction. However, the literature is controversial regarding cost-effectiveness analysis of this intervention. The aim was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a managed protocol for the treatment of severe sepsis. Materials and methods This is a prospective cohort study involving a historical comparison (before and after the implementation of the protocol) of patients who had been hospitalized with severe sepsis and septic shock. The group of patients who were treated before the assistance routine was implemented was considered to be the control. The case managed nurse involved with assistance protocol performed the data collection. This nurse received special training to ensure the quality of the data and to measure the intervention throughout the implementation process. Results A total of 414 patients were analyzed. The mortality rates were 57% in the control group and 38% in the protocol group (p = 0.002). After the implementation of the protocol, the absolute risk reduction was 18%, and the relative risk reduction was 31.8%. There was a tendency for a reduction in the cost of the full hospitalization, but this trend did not reach statistical significance. Nevertheless, the cost of hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) reduced significantly from US$ 138,237 ± 202,418 in the control group to US$ 85,484 ± 127,471 in the protocol group (p = 0.003). The managed protocol for sepsis resulted in an average gain of 3.2 life-years after being discharged from the hospital (8.8 ± 13.3 years in the control group and 12.0 ± 14.0 years in the protocol group; p = 0.01). Conclusions Given the incremental cost was lower than or equal to zero, the effectiveness of the protocol was justified by the significant increase in the life-years saved and the reduced mortality.
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