Current treatment strategy of acute promyelocytic leukemia.
ABSTRACT Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a unique subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The prognosis of APL has changed from the worst among the AMLs to currently the best. The application of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in the induction therapy of APL decreases the high mortality of newly diagnosed patients, thereby significantly improving the response rate. ATRA combined with anthracycline-based chemotherapy is the current standard treatment, and for high-risk patients, high doses cytarabine have a beneficial effect on relapse prevention. In recent years, the indications of arsenic trioxide (ATO) therapy for APL have been extended from the salvage therapy for relapse patients to the first-line treatment of de novo APL. The introduction of both ATRA and ATO represents great achievements in translational medicine. In this review article, we discuss the therapeutic strategies for this disease, including the initial approaches to newly diagnosed patients, prevention, and treatment of side effects and relapse to ensure the best and timely treatment for each newly diagnosed APL patient.
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ABSTRACT: Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), ellagic acid (EA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) are natural polyphenols exerting cancer chemopreventive effects. Ribonucleotide reductase (RR; EC 126.96.36.199) converts ribonucleoside diphosphates into deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates being essential for DNA replication, which is why the enzyme is considered an excellent target for anticancer therapy. EGCG, EA, and RA dose-dependently inhibited the growth of human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells, exerted strong free radical scavenging potential, and significantly imbalanced nuclear deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) concentrations without distinctly affecting the protein levels of RR subunits (R1, R2, p53R2). Incorporation of (14)C-cytidine into nascent DNA of tumor cells was also significantly lowered, being equivalent to an inhibition of DNA synthesis. Consequently, treatment with EGCG and RA attenuated cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, finally resulting in a pronounced induction of apoptosis. Sequential combination of EA and RA with the first-line antileukemic agent arabinofuranosylcytosine (AraC) synergistically potentiated the antiproliferative effect of AraC, whereas EGCG plus AraC yielded additive effects. Taken together, we show for the first time that EGCG, EA, and RA perturbed dNTP levels and inhibited cell proliferation in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells, with EGCG and RA causing a pronounced induction of apoptosis. Due to these effects and synergism with AraC, these food ingredients deserve further preclinical and in vivo testing as inhibitors of leukemic cell proliferation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 01/2015; 22(1):213-22. DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2014.11.017 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have applied bioinformatic approaches to identify pathways common to chemical leukemogens and to determine whether leukemogens could be distinguished from non-leukemogenic carcinogens. From all known and probable carcinogens classified by IARC and NTP, we identified 35 carcinogens that were associated with leukemia risk in human studies and 16 non-leukemogenic carcinogens. Using data on gene/protein targets available in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) for 29 of the leukemogens and 11 of the non-leukemogenic carcinogens, we analyzed for enrichment of all 250 human biochemical pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The top pathways targeted by the leukemogens included metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, glutathione metabolism, neurotrophin signaling pathway, apoptosis, MAPK signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling and various cancer pathways. The 29 leukemogens formed 18 distinct clusters comprising 1 to 3 chemicals that did not correlate with known mechanism of action or with structural similarity as determined by 2D Tanimoto coefficients in the PubChem database. Unsupervised clustering and one-class support vector machines, based on the pathway data, were unable to distinguish the 29 leukemogens from 11 non-leukemogenic known and probable IARC carcinogens. However, using two-class random forests to estimate leukemogen and non-leukemogen patterns, we estimated a 76% chance of distinguishing a random leukemogen/non-leukemogen pair from each other.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 07/2012; 9(7):2479-503. DOI:10.3390/ijerph9072479 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: In previous studies, we investigated the effects of excess retinoic acid (RA) during palatogenesis by RA administration to pregnant mice. In the present study, we deleted Cyp26b1, one of the RA-degrading enzymes, to further study the effects of excess RA in the normal developing palate and to understand how endogenous levels of RA are regulated. Results: Excess RA, due to the absence of Cyp26b1, targets cells in the bend region of the palatal shelves and inhibits their horizontal elevation, leading to cleft palate. An organ culture of Cyp26b1-/- palatal shelves after tongue removal did not rescue the impaired elevation of the palatal shelves. The expression of Fgf10, Bmp2, and Tbx1, important molecules in palatal development, was down-regulated. Cell proliferation was decreased in the bend region of palatal shelves. Tongue muscles were hypoplastic and/or missing in Cyp26b1-/- mice. Conclusions: We demonstrated that CYP26B1 is essential during palatogenesis. Excess RA due to the lack of Cyp26b1 suppresses the expression of key regulators of palate development in the bend region, resulting in a failure in the horizontal elevation of the palatal shelves. The regulation of RA signaling through CYP26B1 is also necessary for the development of tongue musculature and for tongue depression. Developmental Dynamics 241:1744-1756, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Developmental Dynamics 11/2012; 241(11):1744-56. DOI:10.1002/dvdy.23862 · 2.67 Impact Factor