EGR1 and the ERK-ERF axis drive mammary cell migration in response to EGF
ABSTRACT The signaling pathways that commit cells to migration are incompletely understood. We employed human mammary cells and two stimuli: epidermal growth factor (EGF), which induced cellular migration, and serum factors, which stimulated cell growth. In addition to strong activation of ERK by EGF, and AKT by serum, early transcription remarkably differed: while EGF induced early growth response-1 (EGR1), and this was required for migration, serum induced c-Fos and FosB to enhance proliferation. We demonstrate that induction of EGR1 involves ERK-mediated down-regulation of microRNA-191 and phosphorylation of the ETS2 repressor factor (ERF) repressor, which subsequently leaves the nucleus. Unexpectedly, knockdown of ERF inhibited migration, which implies migratory roles for exported ERF molecules. On the other hand, chromatin immunoprecipitation identified a subset of direct EGR1 targets, including EGR1 autostimulation and SERPINB2, whose transcription is essential for EGF-induced cell migration. In summary, EGR1 and the EGF-ERK-ERF axis emerge from our study as major drivers of growth factor-induced mammary cell migration.
SourceAvailable from: Merav Kedmi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Growth factors promote tumor growth and metastasis. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced a set of 22 microRNAs (miRNAs) before promoting the migration of mammary cells. These miRNAs were more abundant in human breast tumors relative to the surrounding tissue, and their abundance varied among breast cancer subtypes. One of these miRNAs, miR-15b, targeted the 3' untranslated region of MTSS1 (metastasis suppressor protein 1). Although xenografts in which MTSS1 was knocked down grew more slowly in mice initially, longer-term growth was unaffected. Knocking down MTSS1 increased migration and Matrigel invasion of nontransformed mammary epithelial cells. Overexpressing MTSS1 in an invasive cell line decreased cell migration and invasiveness, decreased the formation of invadopodia and actin stress fibers, and increased the formation of cellular junctions. In tissues from breast cancer patients with the aggressive basal subtype, an inverse correlation occurred with the high expression of miRNA-15b and the low expression of MTSS1. Furthermore, low abundance of MTSS1 correlated with poor patient prognosis. Thus, growth factor-inducible miRNAs mediate mechanisms underlying the progression of cancer. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.Science Signaling 01/2015; 8(368):ra29. DOI:10.1126/scisignal.2005866 · 7.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ectopic expression of dual-specificity phosphatase 5 (DUSP5), an inducible mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase, specifically inactivates and anchors extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the nucleus. However, the role of endogenous DUSP5 in regulating the outcome of Ras/ERK kinase signaling under normal and pathological conditions is unknown. Here we report that mice lacking DUSP5 show a greatly increased sensitivity to mutant Harvey-Ras (HRasQ61L)-driven papilloma formation in the 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (DMBA/TPA) model of skin carcinogenesis. Furthermore, mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) from DUSP5-/- mice show increased levels of nuclear phospho-ERK immediately after TPA stimulation and fail to accumulate total ERK in the nucleus compared with DUSP5+/+ cells. Surprisingly, a microarray analysis reveals that only a small number of Ras/ERK-dependent TPA-responsive transcripts are up-regulated on deletion of DUSP5 in MEFs and mouse skin. The most up-regulated gene on DUSP5 loss encodes SerpinB2, an inhibitor of extracellular urokinase plasminogen activator and deletion of DUSP5 acts synergistically with mutant HRasQ61L and TPA to activate ERK-dependent SerpinB2 expression at the transcriptional level. SerpinB2 has previously been implicated as a mediator of DMBA/TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis. By analyzing DUSP5-/-, SerpinB2-/- double knockout mice, we demonstrate that deletion of SerpinB2 abrogates the increased sensitivity to papilloma formation seen on DUSP5 deletion. We conclude that DUSP5 performs a key nonredundant role in regulating nuclear ERK activation, localization, and gene expression. Furthermore, our results suggest an in vivo role for DUSP5 as a tumor suppressor by modulating the oncogenic potential of activated Ras in the epidermis.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2014; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1420159112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dissemination of primary tumor cells depends on migratory and invasive attributes. Here, we identify Navigator-3 (NAV3), a gene frequently mutated or deleted in human tumors, as a regulator of epithelial migration and invasion. Following induction by growth factors, NAV3 localizes to the plus ends of microtubules and enhances their polarized growth. Accordingly, NAV3 depletion trimmed microtubule growth, prolonged growth factor signaling, prevented apoptosis and enhanced random cell migration. Mathematical modeling suggested that NAV3-depleted cells acquire an advantage in terms of the way they explore their environment. In animal models, silencing NAV3 increased metastasis, whereas ectopic expression of the wild-type form, unlike expression of two, relatively unstable oncogenic mutants from human tumors, inhibited metastasis. Congruently, analyses of > 2,500 breast and lung cancer patients associated low NAV3 with shorter survival. We propose that NAV3 inhibits breast cancer progression by regulating microtubule dynamics, biasing directionally persistent rather than random migration, and inhibiting locomotion of initiated cells. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.EMBO Molecular Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.15252/emmm.201404134 · 8.25 Impact Factor