EGR1 and the ERK-ERF axis drive mammary cell migration in response to EGF.
ABSTRACT The signaling pathways that commit cells to migration are incompletely understood. We employed human mammary cells and two stimuli: epidermal growth factor (EGF), which induced cellular migration, and serum factors, which stimulated cell growth. In addition to strong activation of ERK by EGF, and AKT by serum, early transcription remarkably differed: while EGF induced early growth response-1 (EGR1), and this was required for migration, serum induced c-Fos and FosB to enhance proliferation. We demonstrate that induction of EGR1 involves ERK-mediated down-regulation of microRNA-191 and phosphorylation of the ETS2 repressor factor (ERF) repressor, which subsequently leaves the nucleus. Unexpectedly, knockdown of ERF inhibited migration, which implies migratory roles for exported ERF molecules. On the other hand, chromatin immunoprecipitation identified a subset of direct EGR1 targets, including EGR1 autostimulation and SERPINB2, whose transcription is essential for EGF-induced cell migration. In summary, EGR1 and the EGF-ERK-ERF axis emerge from our study as major drivers of growth factor-induced mammary cell migration.
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ABSTRACT: Wnt signaling plays a critical role in embryonic development, and genetic aberrations in this network have been broadly implicated in colorectal cancer. We find that the Wnt receptor Frizzled2 (Fzd2) and its ligands Wnt5a/b are elevated in metastatic liver, lung, colon, and breast cancer cell lines and in high-grade tumors and that their expression correlates with markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Pharmacologic and genetic perturbations reveal that Fzd2 drives EMT and cell migration through a previously unrecognized, noncanonical pathway that includes Fyn and Stat3. A gene signature regulated by this pathway predicts metastasis and overall survival in patients. We have developed an antibody to Fzd2 that reduces cell migration and invasion and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in xenografts. We propose that targeting this pathway could provide benefit for patients with tumors expressing high levels of Fzd2 and Wnt5a/bCell 11/2014; 159(4):844. · 33.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Signal transduction by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and nuclear receptors for steroid hormones is essential for body homeostasis, but the cross-talk between these receptor families is poorly understood. We observed that glucocorticoids inhibit signalling downstream of EGFR, an RTK. The underlying mechanism entails suppression of EGFR's positive feedback loops and simultaneous triggering of negative feedback loops that normally restrain EGFR. Our studies in mice reveal that the regulation of EGFR's feedback loops by glucocorticoids translates to circadian control of EGFR signalling: EGFR signals are suppressed by high glucocorticoids during the active phase (night-time in rodents), while EGFR signals are enhanced during the resting phase. Consistent with this pattern, treatment of animals bearing EGFR-driven tumours with a specific kinase inhibitor was more effective if administered during the resting phase of the day, when glucocorticoids are low. These findings support a circadian clock-based paradigm in cancer therapy.Nature Communications 10/2014; 5:5073. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ectopic expression of dual-specificity phosphatase 5 (DUSP5), an inducible mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase, specifically inactivates and anchors extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the nucleus. However, the role of endogenous DUSP5 in regulating the outcome of Ras/ERK kinase signaling under normal and pathological conditions is unknown. Here we report that mice lacking DUSP5 show a greatly increased sensitivity to mutant Harvey-Ras (HRasQ61L)-driven papilloma formation in the 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (DMBA/TPA) model of skin carcinogenesis. Furthermore, mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) from DUSP5-/- mice show increased levels of nuclear phospho-ERK immediately after TPA stimulation and fail to accumulate total ERK in the nucleus compared with DUSP5+/+ cells. Surprisingly, a microarray analysis reveals that only a small number of Ras/ERK-dependent TPA-responsive transcripts are up-regulated on deletion of DUSP5 in MEFs and mouse skin. The most up-regulated gene on DUSP5 loss encodes SerpinB2, an inhibitor of extracellular urokinase plasminogen activator and deletion of DUSP5 acts synergistically with mutant HRasQ61L and TPA to activate ERK-dependent SerpinB2 expression at the transcriptional level. SerpinB2 has previously been implicated as a mediator of DMBA/TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis. By analyzing DUSP5-/-, SerpinB2-/- double knockout mice, we demonstrate that deletion of SerpinB2 abrogates the increased sensitivity to papilloma formation seen on DUSP5 deletion. We conclude that DUSP5 performs a key nonredundant role in regulating nuclear ERK activation, localization, and gene expression. Furthermore, our results suggest an in vivo role for DUSP5 as a tumor suppressor by modulating the oncogenic potential of activated Ras in the epidermis.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor