Correlation Between IgA Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody Ratio and Histological Finding in Celiac Disease
ABSTRACT Positivity of both immunoglobulin A anti-tissue transglutaminase (TTG) and anti-endomysium antibodies (EMA) has a positive predictive value of nearly 100% for celiac disease (CD). The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether patients of any age, with high pretest probability of CD and high titre of anti-TTG and EMA positivity, have a high probability of intestinal damage and may not require the biopsy for final diagnosis.
A retrospective analysis of 412 consecutively referred patients, age range 10 months to 72 years, who underwent small-bowel biopsy for suspicion of CD and positivity to both anti-TTG and EMA, was performed at 4 Italian centers. Biopsies were evaluated independently by 2 pathologists using Marsh modified classification; in cases of dissimilar results, a third pathologist examined the biopsy. The final histological finding diagnosis was expressed as the prevalent or highest score assigned by the pathologist board.
Three hundred ninety-six patients (96.1%) had histological findings consistent with CD (grade 2 and 3a, 3b, or 3c of modified Marsh classification). An anti-TTG ratio ≥ 7 was able to identify with the 3 assays used (Celikey, anti-TTG immunoglobulin A, EuTTG) all of the patients with significant mucosal damage (Marsh ≥ 2) independent of age and sex; specificity and positive predictive value were 100%. An anti-TTG ratio >20 was more specific (99.8%) for identification of patients with villous atrophy (Marsh 3 a, b, or c).
Patients with positivity of anti-TTG ≥ 7-fold cutoff, confirmed by positivity to EMA, have a high-degree probability of duodenal damage. In selected conditions, a duodenal biopsy may be avoided and a confirmed greatly positive anti-TTG result could be the basis to prescribe a gluten-free diet.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The updated ESPGHAN guidance on Coeliac disease recommend the use of common multiples of the upper limit of normal (ULN) for IgA tissue transglutaminase antibodies (TG2) when deciding which diagnostic pathway to follow. The current lack of standardisation between assays makes it difficult to harmonise results between centres as different performance characteristics are observed with each assay. This variability is shown in data from EQA distributions. As a result, the updated guidance is too generalised for use with all the commercial TG2 kits and is therefore not translatable for use in all centres.Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 06/2012; 55(6). DOI:10.1097/MPG.0b013e31826531f6 · 2.87 Impact Factor
Article: Diagnosis of celiac disease.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article reviews issues related to identifying the appropriate patient to test for celiac disease, the performance characteristics of serologic testing, the role of gene testing for human leukocyte antigen DQ2 and DQ8 haplotypes, and issues related to the performance of small intestinal biopsy. The article concludes with a review of special diagnostic considerations in pediatric patients.Gastrointestinal endoscopy clinics of North America 10/2012; 22(4):661-77. DOI:10.1016/j.giec.2012.07.004
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Coeliac disease (CD) is characterized by several markers, including anti-transglutaminase auto-antibodies (tTGAb) directed against multiple epitopes of the gliadin protein. We aimed to investigate the correlation among CD duodenal lesions, tTGAb titres and the immunoreactivity against tTG constructs. A total of 345 CD patients (209 females, 136 males, overall median age: 7.3 years) were tested for full-length (fl) tTGAb with a fluid-phase radioimmunoassay. Out of the total, 231 patients were also tested for immunoreactivity against tTG fragments (F1: a.a. 227-687 and F2: a.a. 473-687). Patients were classified according to diffuse (D), patchy (P) or bulb (B) histological lesions. All sera were found fltTGAb positive. Patients with D, P and B lesions had a mean Ab index of 0.84±0.39, 0.57±0.39 and 0.45±0.24, respectively. Mean tTGAb titre varied between D and localized (P+B) patients (0.84±0.39 versus 0.52±0.34, P < 0.0001). Overall, 86.1% of patients were F1 auto-antibody (F1Ab) positive (D: 89%, P: 75%, B: 40%; D versus P+B: P = 0.004) and 49% of patients were F2 auto-antibody (F2Ab) positive (D: 53%, P: 19%, B: 10%; D versus P+B: P = 0.0006). Of the D patients 50.7% showed combined F1Ab-F2Ab (D versus P+B: P = 0.001), whereas 60% of B patients were negative for both F1Ab and F2Ab (B versus D: P < 0.0001). Coeliac-specific tTGAb immunoreactivity correlates with the grading and extension of histological duodenal lesions in CD patients at diagnosis. The immunoreactivity against single and combined tTG fragments is significantly higher in patients with D lesions. This is the first evidence of a distinct coeliac-specific immunoreactivity in patients with different duodenal involvement.International Immunology 02/2013; DOI:10.1093/intimm/dxs159 · 3.18 Impact Factor