Article

Frequent somatic mutations in MAP3K5 and MAP3K9 in metastatic melanoma identified by exome sequencing.

Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Nature Genetics (Impact Factor: 29.65). 12/2011; 44(2):165-9. DOI: 10.1038/ng.1041
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We sequenced eight melanoma exomes to identify new somatic mutations in metastatic melanoma. Focusing on the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family, we found that 24% of melanoma cell lines have mutations in the protein-coding regions of either MAP3K5 or MAP3K9. Structural modeling predicted that mutations in the kinase domain may affect the activity and regulation of these protein kinases. The position of the mutations and the loss of heterozygosity of MAP3K5 and MAP3K9 in 85% and 67% of melanoma samples, respectively, together suggest that the mutations are likely to be inactivating. In in vitro kinase assays, MAP3K5 I780F and MAP3K9 W333* variants had reduced kinase activity. Overexpression of MAP3K5 or MAP3K9 mutants in HEK293T cells reduced the phosphorylation of downstream MAP kinases. Attenuation of MAP3K9 function in melanoma cells using siRNA led to increased cell viability after temozolomide treatment, suggesting that decreased MAP3K pathway activity can lead to chemoresistance in melanoma.

0 Followers
 · 
392 Views
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, is an aggressive disease that is rising in incidence. Although melanoma is a historically treatment-resistant malignancy, in recent years unprecedented breakthroughs in targeted therapies and immunotherapies have revolutionized the standard of care for patients with advanced disease. Here, we provide an overview of recent developments in our understanding of melanoma risk factors, genomics, and molecular pathogenesis and how these insights have driven advances in melanoma treatment. In addition, we review benefits and limitations of current therapies and look ahead to continued progress in melanoma prevention and therapy. Remarkable achievements in the field have already produced a paradigm shift in melanoma treatment: Metastatic melanoma, once considered incurable, can now be treated with potentially curative rather than palliative intent. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Science 11/2014; 346(6212):945-9. DOI:10.1126/science.1253735 · 31.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To reveal the clonal architecture of melanoma and associated driver mutations, whole genome sequencing (WGS) and targeted extension sequencing were used to characterize 124 melanoma cases. Significantly mutated gene analysis using 13 WGS cases and 15 additional paired extension cases identified known melanoma genes such as BRAF, NRAS, and CDKN2A, as well as a novel gene EPHA3, previously implicated in other cancer types. Extension studies using tumors from another 96 patients discovered a large number of truncation mutations in tumor suppressors (TP53 and RB1), protein phosphatases (e.g., PTEN, PTPRB, PTPRD, and PTPRT), as well as chromatin remodeling genes (e.g., ASXL3, MLL2, and ARID2). Deep sequencing of mutations revealed subclones in the majority of metastatic tumors from 13 WGS cases. Validated mutations from 12 out of 13 WGS patients exhibited a predominant UV signature characterized by a high frequency of C->T transitions occurring at the 3' base of dipyrimidine sequences while one patient (MEL9) with a hypermutator phenotype lacked this signature. Strikingly, a subclonal mutation signature analysis revealed that the founding clone in MEL9 exhibited UV signature but the secondary clone did not, suggesting different mutational mechanisms for two clonal populations from the same tumor. Further analysis of four metastases from different geographic locations in 2 melanoma cases revealed phylogenetic relationships and highlighted the genetic alterations responsible for differential drug resistance among metastatic tumors. Our study suggests that clonal evaluation is crucial for understanding tumor etiology and drug resistance in melanoma.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e111153. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111153 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
58 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014