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[Vaccination of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria under eculizumab treatment].

Unidad de Medicina Preventiva, Hospital San Jorge, Huesca, España.
Medicina Clínica (Impact Factor: 1.25). 12/2011; 138(14):640-1.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To determine the degree of interinstitutional transfusion practice variation and reasons why red cells are administered in critically ill patients. STUDY DESIGN: Multicentre cohort study combined with a cross-sectional survey of physicians requesting red cell transfusions for patients in the cohort. STUDY POPULATION: The cohort included 5298 consecutive patients admitted to six tertiary level intensive care units in addition to administering a survey to 223 physicians requesting red cell transfusions in these units. MEASUREMENTS: Haemoglobin concentrations were collected, along with the number and reasons for red cell transfusions plus demographic, diagnostic, disease severity (APACHE II score), intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and lengths of stay in the ICU. RESULTS: Twenty five per cent of the critically ill patients in the cohort study received red cell transfusions. The overall number of transfusions per patient-day in the ICU averaged 0.95 +/- 1.39 and ranged from 0.82 +/- 1.69 to 1.08 +/- 1.27 between institutions (P < 0.001). Independent predictors of transfusion thresholds (pre-transfusion haemoglobin concentrations) included patient age, admission APACHE II score and the institution (P < 0.0001). A very significant institution effect (P < 0.0001) persisted even after multivariate adjustments for age, APACHE II score and within four diagnostic categories (cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure, major surgery and trauma) (P < 0.0001). The evaluation of transfusion practice using the bedside survey documented that 35% (202 of 576) of pre-transfusion haemoglobin concentrations were in the range of 95-105 g/l and 80% of the orders were for two packed cell units. The most frequent reasons for administering red cells were acute bleeding (35%) and the augmentation of O2 delivery (25%). CONCLUSIONS: There is significant institutional variation in critical care transfusion practice, many intensivists adhering to a 100g/l threshold, and opting to administer multiple units despite published guidelines to the contrary. There is a need for prospective studies to define optimal practice in the critically ill.
    Critical care (London, England) 02/1999; 3(2):57-63. DOI:10.1186/cc310
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    ABSTRACT: Red blood cell transfusion is commonly used to augment systemic oxygen delivery to supranormal levels in patients with sepsis. However, clinical studies have not consistently demonstrated that this therapeutic maneuver is accompanied by an increase in oxygen utilization at either the whole-body level or within individual organs. To determine the effect of red blood cell transfusion on gastrointestinal and whole-body oxygen uptake. Prospective, controlled, interventional study. Multidisciplinary intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Twenty-three critically ill patients with sepsis undergoing mechanical ventilation. Systemic oxygen uptake was measured by indirect calorimetry and calculated by the Fick method. Gastric intramucosal pH as measured by tonometry was used to assess changes in splanchnic oxygen availability. Measurements were made prior to transfusion of 3 U of packed red blood cells. These were then repeated immediately following transfusion, as well as 3 and 6 hours later. There was no increase in systemic oxygen uptake measured by indirect calorimetry in any of the patients studied for up to 6 hours posttransfusion (including those patients with an elevated arterial lactate concentration). However, the calculated systemic oxygen uptake increased in parallel with the oxygen delivery in all the patients. More importantly, we found an inverse association between the change in gastric intramucosal pH and the age of the transfused blood (r = -.71; P < .001). In those patients receiving blood that had been stored for more than 15 days, the gastric intramucosal pH consistently decreased following the red blood cell transfusion. We failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of red blood cell transfusion on measured systemic oxygen uptake in patients with sepsis. Patients receiving old transfused red blood cells developed evidence of splanchnic ischemia. We postulate that the poorly deformable transfused red blood cells cause micro-circulatory occlusion in some organs, which may lead to tissue ischemia in some organs.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 06/1993; 269(23):3024-9. DOI:10.1001/jama.269.23.3024 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether transfusion of red cells either < or =5 days or > or =20 days from donation alters tonometric indexes of gastric mucosal oxygenation or global oxygenation parameters in euvolemic anemic critically ill patients without ongoing hemorrhage. The a priori hypothesis was that stored red cells worsen gastric oxygenation. Prospective, double-blind, randomized study. A 12-bed general medical/surgical intensive care unit in a Scottish teaching hospital. Ventilated euvolemic anemic (mean +/- sd hemoglobin, 85.8 +/- 8.4 g/L) critically ill patients with significant organ failure, but no evidence of hemorrhage. After baseline measurements, patients were randomized to receive two units of leukodepleted red cells that were either < or =5 days (ten patients) or > or =20 days (12 patients) after donation according to a standardized protocol. Changes in gastric to arterial Pco2 gap (Pg-Paco2 gap), gastric intramucosal pH, arterial pH, arterial base excess, and arterial lactate concentrations were measured during baseline (2.5 hrs), during transfusion (3 hrs), and for 5 hrs after transfusion. Mean age of red cells stored < or =5 days was 2 days (first and third quartile, 2, 2.25; range, 2-3); red cells stored >/=20 days had a mean age of 28 days (first and third quartile, 27, 31; range, 22-32). Hemoglobin concentration increased by 15.0 g/L and 16.6 g/L, respectively, in the fresh and stored groups (p =.62). There were no significant differences between the groups either using treatment-by-time analysis or comparing the pre- and posttransfusion periods either for Pg-Paco2 gap (mean difference, 0.03 kPa; 95% confidence limits, -1.66, 1.72) or gastric intramucosal pH (mean difference, 0.015 pH units; 95% confidence limits, -0.054, 0.084). The mean change within each group from the pre- to posttransfusion period for Pg-Paco2 gap and gastric intramucosal pH, respectively, was 0.56 kPa (95% confidence limits, -0.68, 1.79) and -0.018 pH units (95% confidence limits, -0.069, 0.032) for "fresh" red cells and 0.52 kPa (95% confidence limits, -0.6, 1.64) and -0.033 pH units (95% confidence limits, -0.080, 0.129) for "stored" red cells. There was no statistically or clinically significant improvement in any other oxygenation index during the measurement period for either group compared to baseline values. Transfusion of stored leukodepleted red cells to euvolemic, anemic, critically ill patients has no clinically significant adverse effects on gastric tonometry or global indexes of tissue oxygenation. These findings do not support the use of fresh red cells in critically ill patients.
    Critical Care Medicine 02/2004; 32(2):364-71. DOI:10.1097/01.CCM.0000108878.23703.E0 · 6.15 Impact Factor