The neuropharmacology of prolactin secretion elicited by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy"): a concurrent microdialysis and plasma analysis study.
ABSTRACT 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a substituted phenethylamine that is widely abused as the street drug "ecstasy". Racemic MDMA (S,R(+/-)-MDMA) and its stereoisomers elicit complex spectrums of psychobiological, neurochemical, and hormonal effects. In this regard, recent findings demonstrated that S,R(+/-)-MDMA and its stereoisomer R(-)-MDMA elicit increases in striatal extracellular serotonin levels and plasma levels of the hormone prolactin in rhesus monkeys. In the present mechanistic study, we evaluated the role of the serotonin transporter and the 5-HT(2A) receptor in S,R(+/-)-MDMA- and R(-)-MDMA-elicited prolactin secretion in rhesus monkeys through concurrent microdialysis and plasma analysis determinations and drug interaction experiments. Concurrent neurochemical and hormone determinations showed a strong positive temporal correlation between serotonin release and prolactin secretion. Consistent with their distinct mechanisms of action and previous studies showing that the serotonin transporter inhibitor fluoxetine attenuates the behavioral and neurochemical effects of S,R(+/-)-MDMA, pretreatment with fluoxetine attenuated serotonin release elicited by either S,R(+/-)-MDMA or R(-)-MDMA. As hypothesized, at a dose that had no significant effects on circulating prolactin levels when administered alone, fluoxetine also attenuated prolactin secretion elicited by S,R(+/-)-MDMA. In contrast, combined pretreatment with both fluoxetine and the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist M100907 was required to attenuate prolactin secretion elicited by R(-)-MDMA, suggesting that this stereoisomer of S,R(+/-)-MDMA elicits prolactin secretion through both serotonin release and direct agonism of 5-HT(2A) receptors. Accordingly, these findings inform our understanding of the neuropharmacology of both S,R(+/-)-MDMA and R(-)-MDMA and the regulation of prolactin secretion.
Article: Cocaine-induced changes in extracellular dopamine determined by microdialysis in awake squirrel monkeys.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The behavioral effects of cocaine have been linked to brain dopamine systems. Extending the findings to neurochemical studies in the squirrel monkey would enhance our understanding of the behavioral pharmacology of cocaine in nonhuman primates. The present studies characterized the effects of cocaine and the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR 12909 on extracellular dopamine in the caudate nucleus of awake squirrel monkeys through microdialysis experiments. Guide cannulae were implanted in the caudate nucleus of four monkeys using a stereotaxic apparatus and coordinates obtained from a standard squirrel monkey brain atlas. Accurate probe placement was confirmed in all subjects with magnetic resonance imaging. Collectively, the results support the feasibility of a repeated-measures design. Stability of tissue integrity after repeated probe insertion was supported by measurement of consistent basal levels of dopamine and its metabolites across several experiments, observation of potassium-induced dopamine release and absence of significant glial proliferation as assessed by GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) immunochemistry. Moreover, peak drug effects and time-course of action were similar when multiple probes were positioned in the same anatomical site over several experiments. Cocaine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.) and GBR 12909 (3.0 mg/kg i.m.) elevated extracellular dopamine to approximately 300% of basal levels, but GBR 12909 produced a slower, more sustained elevation than cocaine. The results validate the use of microdialysis in awake primates using repeated sampling of the same anatomical site and demonstrate orderly changes in extracellular dopamine following administration of dopamine uptake inhibitors.Psychopharmacologia 03/2000; 148(3):299-306. · 4.08 Impact Factor