Article

The Stress-Induced Cytokine Interleukin-6 Decreases the Inhibition/Excitation Ratio in the Rat Temporal Cortex via Trans-Signaling

School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, 75080, USA.
Biological psychiatry (Impact Factor: 9.47). 04/2012; 71(7):574–582. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.11.018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although it is known that stress elevates the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes hyper-excitable central conditions, a causal relationship between these two factors has not yet been identified. Recent studies suggest that increases in interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels are specifically associated with stress. We hypothesized that IL-6 acutely and directly induces cortical hyper-excitability by altering the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition.
We used patch-clamp to determine the effects of exogenous or endogenous IL-6 on electrically evoked postsynaptic currents on a cortical rat slice preparation. We used control subjects or animals systemically injected with lipopolysaccharide or subjected to electrical foot-shock as rat models of stress.
In control animals, IL-6 did not affect excitatory postsynaptic currents but selectively and reversibly reduced the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents with a postsynaptic effect. The IL-6-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents decrease was inhibited by drugs interfering with receptor trafficking and/or internalization, including wortmannin, Brefeldin A, 2-Br-hexadecanoic acid, or dynamin peptide inhibitor. In both animal models, stress-induced decrease in synaptic inhibition/excitation ratio was prevented by prior intra-ventricular injection of an analog of the endogenous IL-6 trans-signaling blocker gp130.
Our results suggest that stress-induced IL-6 shifts the balance between synaptic inhibition and excitation in favor of the latter, possibly by decreasing the density of functional γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors, accelerating their removal and/or decreasing their insertion rate from/to the plasma membrane. We speculate that this mechanism could contribute to stress-induced detrimental long-term increases in central excitability present in a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions.

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