Neuroprotective effect of oleuropein following spinal cord injury in rats

Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
Neurological Research (Impact Factor: 1.44). 01/2012; 34(1):44-51. DOI: 10.1179/1743132811Y.0000000058
Source: PubMed


Oleuropein (OE) is a well-known antioxidant polyphenol from olive oil. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential neuroprotective effects of oleuropein in an experimental spinal cord injury model.
Rats were randomly divided into four groups of 21 rats each as follows: sham-operated group, trauma group, and OE treatment groups (20 mg/kg, i.p., immediately and 1 hour after spinal cord injury). Spinal cord samples were taken 24 hours after injury and studied for determination of malondialdehyde and glutathione levels, histopathological assessment, immunohistochemistry of Bax and Bcl-2, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling reaction. Behavioral testing was performed weekly up to 6 weeks post-injury.
The results showed that malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased, and glutathione levels were significantly increased in OE treatment groups. Greater Bcl-2 and attenuated Bax expression could be detected in the OE-treated rats. OE significantly reduced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive reaction and improved behavioral function than the trauma group.
These findings indicate that OE may be effective in protecting rat spinal cord from secondary injury.

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    • "It has been well known that promotion of glutathione synthesis after SCI would be an effective way to reduce oxidative stress, tissue damage, and motor disfunction [72]. Biochemical study showed that administration of oleuropein after traumatic SCI significantly increased the level of glutathione [61]. In support of these findings, other study documented that dietary olive oil increased glutathione concentration in rat brain slices subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation [66]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Polyphenols have been shown to have some of the neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases. These effects are attributed to a variety of biological activities, including free radical scavenging/antioxidant and anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. In this regard, many efforts have been made to study the effects of various well-known dietary polyphenols on spinal cord injury (SCI) and to explore the mechanisms behind the neuroprotective effects. The aim of this paper is to present the mechanisms of neuroprotection of natural polyphenols used in animal models of SCI.
    Iranian biomedical journal 07/2014; 18(3):120-9. DOI:10.6091/ibj.1278.2014
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    • "Oleuropein has high antioxidant activity in vitro, comparable to a hydrosoluble analogue of tocopherol [5] . Previous our study showed that oleuropein has neuroprotective effect in spinal cord injury and protective effect in oxidative spinal cord injury [8] . Since the hypolipidemic, antiatherogenic and protective effects of oleuropein on hyperglycemia and hemoglobin A1C status in alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats have not previously been reported; the objectives of the present study were to investigate hypoglycemic, hypolipdemic and antiatherogenic effects of oleuropein in alloxan-induced "
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    ABSTRACT: Oleuropein is a natural antioxidant and scavenging free radicals. In the present study, we examined effect of oleuropein on hemoglobin A1C, serum glucose, lipid profile and atherogenic index in alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty Sprage-dawley male rats were divided into three groups randomly; group one as control, group two diabetic untreatment, and group three treatments with oleuropein by 15 mg/kg i.p daily, respectively .Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, the levels of hemoglobin A1C, fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (C), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and atherogenic index of all groups were analyzed. Oleuropein significantly decreased hemoglobin A1C, FBG, TG, C, LDL and VLDL. HDL level was significantly increased when treated with oleuropein. The findings of the present study suggest that oleuropein exert beneficial effects on serum serum glucose, hemoglobin A1C, lipid profile and atherogenic index in alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 01/2014; 4. DOI:10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60481-3
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    ABSTRACT: There are more than 100 different biophenols reported in olive samples. This chapter covers the chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, posology, adverse effects, and potential drug interactions of olives and major olive biophenols (OBP). Major biophenols detected in olive samples include hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and their secoiridoid derivatives (oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone, and elenolic acid dialdehydes), verbascoside, lignans, and flavonoids. By far the majority of reports on the chemistry of OBP pertain to their ability to function as antioxidants, but other bioactivities include binding to lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. The majority of pharmacological studies have focused on just four compounds hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside. Reported pharmacological properties include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular, immunomodulatory, gastrointestinal, respiratory, autonomic, central nervous system, antimicrobial, anticancer and chemopreventive. While OBP are generally regarded as safe, further studies on potential adverse reactions may be required to demonstrate the safety of supplements with elevated levels of compounds.
    Advances in Molecular Toxicology, Edited by James C. Fishbein, 01/2012: pages 195-242; Elsevier.
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