A retrospective histopathological review of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Nigerian teaching hospital.
ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to describe the demographic pattern of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Ibadan, Nigeria and compare our findings with that of other countries. It involved a retrospective review of OSCC diagnosed at the University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria between 1990 and 2008. A review of studies from other countries was done with respect to the three most frequently affected sites by OSCC, as well as mean ages and gender ratios. OSCC comprised 181 (43.7%) of the 414 malignant neoplasms diagnosed in the oral cavity within the study period. The most frequently affected sites were the maxillary gingiva (24.9%) and mandibular gingiva (21.5%). There was a slight male preponderance; with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. The peak age was in the eighth decade of life. About 17.7% of cases were diagnosed in patients below the age of 40 years and 1.1% of cases occurred in children. Worldwide, the tongue is the most frequently affected site by squamous cell carcinoma followed by the floor of the mouth. Males are also more frequently affected. In conclusion, OSCC remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among middle aged individuals in our environment and worldwide, but sometimes affecting younger individuals.