A retrospective histopathological review of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
African journal of medicine and medical sciences 06/2011; 40(2):153-8.
Source: PubMed


This study was undertaken to describe the demographic pattern of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Ibadan, Nigeria and compare our findings with that of other countries. It involved a retrospective review of OSCC diagnosed at the University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria between 1990 and 2008. A review of studies from other countries was done with respect to the three most frequently affected sites by OSCC, as well as mean ages and gender ratios. OSCC comprised 181 (43.7%) of the 414 malignant neoplasms diagnosed in the oral cavity within the study period. The most frequently affected sites were the maxillary gingiva (24.9%) and mandibular gingiva (21.5%). There was a slight male preponderance; with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. The peak age was in the eighth decade of life. About 17.7% of cases were diagnosed in patients below the age of 40 years and 1.1% of cases occurred in children. Worldwide, the tongue is the most frequently affected site by squamous cell carcinoma followed by the floor of the mouth. Males are also more frequently affected. In conclusion, OSCC remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among middle aged individuals in our environment and worldwide, but sometimes affecting younger individuals.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, its risk factors, site, and age of occurrence. Material and Methods: One hundred and nine cases of squamous cell carcinoma involving the oral cavity were retrieved from the records of Regional Cancer Centre, Benghazi and were analysed. Results and Conclusion: The age range was 11-94 years with a male-female ratio 1.9-1. The tongue (30.2 %) was the most common site of occurrence. Tobacco was found as a risk factor in male patients above 40 years old, however, no risk factors were found in other patients. Due to the changing trends of cancer pattern and associated risk factors, we emphasize the need for an exhaustive evaluation to understand the biology and the role of non conventional risk factors. An increase in the reports of oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) in younger patients with no or minimal history of traditional risk factors is of a grave concern and more research needs to be done to identify and redefine the risk factors for education, prevention and diagnosis.