Animal-assisted therapy with farm animals for persons with psychiatric disorders
Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita
(Impact Factor: 1.11).
01/2011; 47(4):384-90. DOI: 10.4415/ANN_11_04_10
Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) with farm animals for humans with psychiatric disorders may reduce depression and state anxiety, and increase self-efficacy, in many participants. Social support by the farmer appears to be important. Positive effects are best documented for persons with affective disorders or clinical depression. Effects may sometimes take a long time to be detectable, but may occur earlier if the participants are encouraged to perform more complex working skills. Progress must however be individually adapted allowing for flexibility, also between days. Therapists involved with mental health show a pronounced belief in the effects of AAT with farm animals, variation being related to type of disorder, therapist's sex and his/her experience with AAT. Research is still scarce and further research is required to optimize and individually adapt the design of farm animal-assisted interventions.
Available from: Ragnfrid Eline Kogstad
- "To the best of our knowledge, there have been no systematic reviews of the Nordic literature on Green Care. Berget and Braastad (2011) published an international review that summarised published studies regarding animal-assisted interventions with farm animals for people with mental disorders. Pedersen (2011) also presents an overview of international literature on Green Care in her doctoral thesis, and in both of these surveys, the searches were limited to scientific articles. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article reviews Nordic literature on Green Care for people out of work or
school, or with mental health- and/or drug-related problems, published from
1995 to April 2014. Green Care is a well-established international concept that
uses animals, plants and nature in an active process to offer health-promoting
activities for people. Reports, evaluations and scientific articles are included. The
main finding was that the Green Care services described in the literature
provided positive activities for our target group. Seven main categories emerged
during the analysis: mastery and coping, positive effects on mental health,
physical activity, structure and meaningfulness, the feeling of dignity produced
by performing a decent ordinary job, social gains, animals and nature
experienced as being supportive. Essential intervention factors identified can be
described as: (i) contact with animals, (ii) supportive natural environments,
(iii) the service leader as a significant important other, (iv) social acceptance and
fellowship with other participants and (v) meaningful and individually adapted
activities in which mastery can be experienced. These five components interact in
a holistic way; the synergetic effects extend the sum of the single factors.
European Journal of Social Work 01/2015; · 0.58 Impact Factor
Available from: Sana Loue
- "The term " care farm " has been used in Europe to refer to the use of commercial farms and agricultural landscapes for the promotion of human health, social inclusion, and educational benefits through farm activity (Berget & Braastad, 2011). The numbers of such farms in Europe is steadily growing. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Romania is currently making efforts to deinstitutionalize residents of its mental health hospitals and initiate a system of community-based mental health care. To be successful, the system of community-based mental health care must include a network of caring and responsible people who are committed to helping those who are mentally ill meet their needs while reintegrating into and remaining a part of the community. Therapeutic farm communities (TFC), or care farms (CF) as they are known in Europe, can serve as a critical component in efforts to assist mentally ill individuals regain their stability and independence. TFCs, which often focus on individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression, promote self-sufficiency through their therapeutic use of farming-related activities, including organic farming and animal care. In addition to farm maintenance activities, programming may include mood management, dialectical behavior therapy, creative expression, equine assisted learning, meditation, education, money management training, and independent living skills activities (planning, shopping, cooking, healthy living), and medication management. This paper first reviews the use of TFCs in Europe and the US, focusing on Hopewell as a model for the US TFCs, and examines the suitability and sustainability of the TFC/CF model for mentally ill persons in Romania in the context of Romania's current political and economic climate.
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 09/2014; 149. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.08.298
Available from: Adrienne O’Neil
- "Formalized animal-assisted therapy may involve horses (equine therapy), dogs, or even interactions with mammals such as dolphins. Time spent with farm animals by people with psychiatric disorders may reduce depression and state anxiety, and increase a sense of self-efficacy , with a small and methodologically limited study suggesting beneficial effects of pet therapy on mood and perceived quality of life in 21 elderly inpatients affected by dementia, depression and psychosis . No clinical recommendations are possible given the available data. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated, due to the complexity of human illness/wellbeing, the emerging evidence encourages a more integrative approach for depression, and an acknowledgment that lifestyle modification should be a routine part of treatment and preventative efforts.
BMC Psychiatry 04/2014; 14(1):107. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-14-107 · 2.21 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.