Planar optical waveguides in Bi_4Ge_3O_12 crystal fabricated by swift heavy-ion irradiation

School of Physics, Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation (MOE) and State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
Applied Optics (Impact Factor: 1.78). 12/2011; 50(36):6678-81. DOI: 10.1364/AO.50.006678
Source: PubMed


We report on the fabrication of the planar waveguides in Bi4Ge3O12 crystal by using 17 MeV C5+ or O5+ ions at a fluence of 2×10(14) ions/cm2. The reconstructed refractive index profiles of the waveguides produced by either C5+ or O5+ irradiation are the "well" + "barrier" pattern distribution. The two-dimensional modal profiles of the planar waveguides, measured by using the end-coupling arrangement, are in good agreement with the simulated modal distributions. After thermal annealing treatment at 260 °C for 30 min, the propagation loss for C5+ and O5+ irradiated waveguides could be reduced down to ~1.1 and ~4.8 dB/cm, respectively, which exhibit acceptable guiding qualities for potential applications in integrated optics.

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    • "Normal light ion (He or H) implantation was successfully applied to fabricate LiTaO 3 waveguides [11] [12] of ''optical barrier'' type due to the nuclear collisions of incident ions with lattice atoms at the end of ion range. Recently swift heavy ions (with energy no less than 1 MeV/amu), for example, O [13], F [14], Cl [15], Ar [16] and Kr [17], have been utilized to irradiate optical materials and achieve refractive index changes of certain regions; and in some cases, waveguides could be constructed mainly by electronic damage induced by the irradiated ions even at very low fluence (as low as $10 11 ions/cm 2 ) [6]. It has been found that the electronic stopping power (S e ) plays dominant role for the electronic damage generation . "
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