Planar optical waveguides in Bi4Ge3O12 crystal fabricated by swift heavy-ion irradiation.

School of Physics, Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation (MOE) and State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
Applied Optics (Impact Factor: 1.78). 12/2011; 50(36):6678-81. DOI: 10.1364/AO.50.006678
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We report on the fabrication of the planar waveguides in Bi4Ge3O12 crystal by using 17 MeV C5+ or O5+ ions at a fluence of 2×10(14) ions/cm2. The reconstructed refractive index profiles of the waveguides produced by either C5+ or O5+ irradiation are the "well" + "barrier" pattern distribution. The two-dimensional modal profiles of the planar waveguides, measured by using the end-coupling arrangement, are in good agreement with the simulated modal distributions. After thermal annealing treatment at 260 °C for 30 min, the propagation loss for C5+ and O5+ irradiated waveguides could be reduced down to ~1.1 and ~4.8 dB/cm, respectively, which exhibit acceptable guiding qualities for potential applications in integrated optics.

  • Source
    • "Normal light ion (He or H) implantation was successfully applied to fabricate LiTaO 3 waveguides [11] [12] of ''optical barrier'' type due to the nuclear collisions of incident ions with lattice atoms at the end of ion range. Recently swift heavy ions (with energy no less than 1 MeV/amu), for example, O [13], F [14], Cl [15], Ar [16] and Kr [17], have been utilized to irradiate optical materials and achieve refractive index changes of certain regions; and in some cases, waveguides could be constructed mainly by electronic damage induced by the irradiated ions even at very low fluence (as low as $10 11 ions/cm 2 ) [6]. It has been found that the electronic stopping power (S e ) plays dominant role for the electronic damage generation . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report on the optical waveguides, in both planar and ridge configurations, fabricated in LiTaO3 crystal by using carbon (C5+) ions irradiation at energy of 15 MeV. The planar waveguide was produced by direct irradiation of swift C5+ ions, whilst the ridge waveguides were manufactured by using femtosecond laser ablation of the planar layer. The reconstructed refractive index profile of the planar waveguide has showed a barrier-shaped distribution, and the near-field waveguide mode intensity distribution was in good agreement with the calculated modal profile. After thermal annealing at 260 °C in air, the propagation losses of both the planar and ridge waveguides were reduced to 10 dB/cm.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 04/2014; 325:43–46. DOI:10.1016/j.nimb.2014.02.009 · 1.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bismuth germanate is a well known scintillator material. It is also used in nonlinear optics, e.g. for building Pockels cells, and can also be used in the fabrication of photorefractive devices. In the present work planar optical waveguides were designed and fabricated in eulytine (Bi4Ge3O12) and sillenite (Bi12GeO20) type bismuth germanate crystals using single- and double-energy irradiation with N+ ions in the 2.5 < E < 3.5 MeV range. Planar waveguides were fabricated via scanning a 2 mm × 2 mm beam over the waveguide area. Typical fluences were between 1 • 1015 and 2 • 1016 ions/cm2. Multi-wavelength m-line spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used for the characterization of the ion beam irradiated waveguides. Waveguide structures obtained from the ellipsometric data via simulation were compared to N+ ion distributions calculated using the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) code. M-lines could be detected up to a wavelength of 1310 nm in the planar waveguide fabricated in sillenite type BGO, and up to 1550 nm in those fabricated in eulytine type BGO.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 03/2013; DOI:10.1117/12.2004563 · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The optical waveguides in Bi<sub>4</sub>Ge<sub>3</sub>O<sub>12</sub> (BGO) crystals in both depressed-cladding and dual-line configurations have been produced using femtosecond-laser micromachining. The guiding properties and thermal stabilities of the BGO waveguides have been investigated for both geometries, showing different performance of the fabricated structures. Both depressed-cladding and dual-line waveguides support guidance along both TE and TM polarizations. Thermal annealing treatments up to 600°C reduce the propagation loss of dual-line waveguides to as low as 0.5 dB/cm, while the cladding waveguide is only stable under thermal treatment not higher than 260°C, reaching a propagation loss of 2.1 dB/cm.
    Applied Optics 06/2013; 52(16):3713-8. DOI:10.1364/AO.52.003713 · 1.78 Impact Factor
Show more