In 2009, a multinational group of clinicians was charged with reviewing and evaluating the research base pertaining to incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) and synthesizing this knowledge into best practice recommendations based on existing evidence. This is the first of 2 articles focusing on IAD; it updates current research and identifies persistent gaps in our knowledge. Our literature review revealed a small but growing body of evidence that provides additional insight into the epidemiology, etiology, and pathophysiology of IAD when compared to the review generated by the first IAD consensus group convened 5 years earlier. We identified research supporting the use of a defined skin care regimen based on principles of gentle perineal cleansing, moisturization, and application of a skin protectant. Clinical experience also supports application of an antifungal powder, ointment, or cream in patients with evidence of cutaneous candidiasis, aggressive containment of urinary or fecal incontinence, and highly selective use of a mild topical anti-inflammatory product in selected cases. The panel concluded that research remains limited and additional studies are urgently needed to enhance our understanding of IAD and to establish evidence-based protocols for its prevention and treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Faecal incontinence (FI) is the involuntary loss of liquid or solid stool that is a social or hygienic problem. The prevalence of FI in residents of care homes is high, but it is not an inevitable consequence of old age or dementia. There is good evidence on risk factors, but few studies provide evidence about effective interventions. There is a need to understand how, why, and in what circumstances particular programmes to reduce and manage FI are effective (or not) for people with dementia. The purpose of this review is to identify which (elements of the) interventions could potentially be effective, and examine the barriers and facilitators to the acceptability, uptake and implementation of interventions designed to address FI in people with dementia who are resident in care homes.
Methods and analysis:
A realist synthesis approach to review the evidence will be used which will include studies on continence, person-centred care, implementation research in care homes, workforce and research on care home culture. An iterative four-stage approach is planned. Phase 1: development of an initial programme theory or theories that will be 'tested' through a first scoping of the literature and consultation with five stakeholder groups (care home providers, user representatives, academics and practice educators, clinicians with a special interest in FI and continence specialists). Phase 2: a systematic search and analysis of published and unpublished evidence to test and develop the programme theories identified in phase 1. Phase 3: validation of programme theory/ies with a purposive sample of participants from phase 1.
Ethics and dissemination:
The overall protocol does not require ethical review. The University research ethics committee will review interviews conducted as part of phase 1 and 3. The final fourth phase will synthesise and develop recommendations for practice and develop testable hypotheses for further research.
BMJ Open 07/2015; 5(7):e007728. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-007728 · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2010, an international consensus conference was held to review current evidence regarding the pathology, prevention, and management of incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD). The results of this literature review were published in a previous issue of this Journal. This article summarizes key consensus statements agreed upon by the panelists, evidence-based guidelines for prevention and management of IAD, and a discussion of the major challenges currently faced by clinicians caring for these patients. The panelists concur that IAD is clinically and pathologically distinct from pressure ulcers and intertriginous dermatitis, and that a consistently applied, structured, or defined skin care program is effective for prevention and management of IAD. They also agreed that differential assessment of IAD versus pressure ulceration versus intertriginous dermatitis remains a major challenge. Panel members also concur that evidence is lacking concerning which products and protocols provide the best outcomes for IAD prevention and treatment in individual patients. Issues related to differential assessment, product labeling and utilization, staff education, and cost of care are the primary focus of this article.
Journal of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing: official publication of The Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society / WOCN 05/2012; 39(3):303-15; quiz 316-7. DOI:10.1097/WON.0b013e3182549118 · 1.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A literature review was performed on the topic of urinary incontinence during physical activity and sports. This paper reviews the prevalence, risk factors, pathophysiology and treatment modalities of urinary incontinence in physically active women and female athletes. Urinary incontinence affects women of all ages, including top female athletes, but is often under-reported. The highest prevalence of urinary incontinence is reported in those participating in high impact sports. Pelvic floor muscle training is considered the first-line treatment, although more research is needed to determine optimal treatment protocols for exercising women and athletes. Trainers, coaches and other athletes' caregivers should be educated and made aware of the need for proper urogynaecological assessment.
British Journal of Sports Medicine 05/2013; 48(4). DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091880 · 5.03 Impact Factor
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