The ins and outs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein export.
ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important pathogen that infects approximately one-third of the world's population and kills almost two million people annually. An important aspect of M. tuberculosis physiology and pathogenesis is its ability to export proteins into and across the thick mycobacterial cell envelope, where they are ideally positioned to interact with the host. In addition to the specific proteins that are exported by M. tuberculosis, the systems through which these proteins are exported represent potential targets for future drug development. M. tuberculosis possesses two well-known and conserved export systems: the housekeeping Sec pathway and the Tat pathway. In addition, M. tuberculosis possesses specialized export systems including the accessory SecA2 pathway and five ESX pathways. Here we review the current understanding of each of these export systems, with a focus on M. tuberculosis, and discuss the contribution of each system to disease and physiology.
Article: ideR, An essential gene in mycobacterium tuberculosis: role of IdeR in iron-dependent gene expression, iron metabolism, and oxidative stress response.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mycobacterial IdeR protein is a metal-dependent regulator of the DtxR (diphtheria toxin repressor) family. In the presence of iron, it binds to a specific DNA sequence in the promoter regions of the genes that it regulates, thus controlling their transcription. In this study, we provide evidence that ideR is an essential gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ideR cannot normally be disrupted in this mycobacterium in the absence of a second functional copy of the gene. However, a rare ideR mutant was obtained in which the lethal effects of ideR inactivation were alleviated by a second-site suppressor mutation and which exhibited restricted iron assimilation capacity. Studies of this strain and a derivative in which IdeR expression was restored allowed us to identify phenotypic effects resulting from ideR inactivation. Using DNA microarrays, the iron-dependent transcriptional profiles of the wild-type, ideR mutant, and ideR-complemented mutant strains were analyzed, and the genes regulated by iron and IdeR were identified. These genes encode a variety of proteins, including putative transporters, proteins involved in siderophore synthesis and iron storage, members of the PE/PPE family, a membrane protein involved in virulence, transcriptional regulators, and enzymes involved in lipid metabolism.Infection and Immunity 08/2002; 70(7):3371-81. · 4.16 Impact Factor
Article: Solution NMR structure and X-ray absorption analysis of the C-terminal zinc-binding domain of the SecA ATPase.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The solution NMR structure of a 22-residue Zn(2+)-binding domain (ZBD) from Esherichia coli preprotein translocase subunit SecA is presented. In conjunction with X-ray absorption analysis, the NMR structure shows that three cysteines and a histidine in the sequence CXCXSGX(8)CH assume a tetrahedral arrangement around the Zn(2+) atom, with an average Zn(2+)-S bond distance of 2.30 A and a Zn(2+)-N bond distance of 2.03 A. The NMR structure shows that ND1 of His20 binds to the Zn(2+) atom. The ND1-Zn(2+) bond is somewhat strained: it makes an angle of approximately 17 degrees with the plane of the ring, and it also shows a significant "in-plane" distortion of 13 degrees. A comprehensive sequence alignment of the SecA-ZBD from many different organisms shows that, along with the four Zn(2+) ligands, there is a serine residue (Ser12) that is completely conserved. The NMR structure indicates that the side chain of this serine residue forms a strong hydrogen bond with the thiolate of the third cysteine residue (Cys19); therefore, the conserved serine appears to have a critical role in the structure. SecB, an export-specific chaperone, is the only known binding partner for the SecA-ZBD. A phylogenetic analysis using 86 microbial genomes shows that 59 of the organisms carry SecA with a ZBD, but only 31 of these organisms also possess a gene for SecB, indicating that there may be uncharacterized binding partners for the SecA-ZBD.Biochemistry 08/2004; 43(29):9361-71. · 3.42 Impact Factor
Article: Cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease characterized by synovial inflammation that leads to the destruction of cartilage and bone. In the last decade, there was a lot of successful research in the field of cytokine expression and regulation. It has become clear that pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, derived predominantely from cells of macrophage lineage, play a major role in the initiation and perpetuation of the chronic inflammatory process in the RA synovial membrane. Monokines are abundant in rheumatoid synovial tissue, whereas low amounts of lymphokines are found. The involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in the pathogenesis of RA is well accepted. Recent data provide evidence that the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18 plays a crucial role in the development and sustenance of inflammatory joint diseases. There also appears to be a compensatory anti-inflammatory response in RA synovial membrane. It has become clear in the last few years that T cell-derived cytokines expressed preferentially by Th1 cells contribute to joint destruction and inflammation in RA. However, products from Th2 cells may be protective.Current Rheumatology Reports 07/2002; 4(3):208-17.