NMR analysis of metabolic responses to extreme conditions of the temperature-dependent coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus.
ABSTRACT To identify and understand the presence of metabolites responsible for the variation in the metabolic profile of Vibrio coralliilyticus under extreme conditions.
Multiple batches of V. coralliilyticus were grown under normal conditions. Four samples in one batch were subjected to extreme conditions via a freeze-thaw cycle during lyophilization. Polar metabolites were extracted using a combination of methanol, water and heat. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic profiles indicated significant differences between the normal and stressed samples. Three compounds identified in the stressed metabolome were maltose, ethanolamine, and the bioplastic-type compound (BTC) 2-butenoic acid, 2-carboxy-1-methylethyl ester. This is the first report of the production of this BTC by V. coralliilyticus.
The presence of maltose and ethanolamine indicates a state of acute nutrient limitation; therefore, we hypothesize that the cell's metabolism turned to its own cell wall, or perhaps neighbouring cells, for sources of carbon and nitrogen. The presence of the BTC also supports the acute nutrient limitation idea because of the parallels with polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production in other gram-negative bacteria, including other Vibrio species.
Recent metabolomics research on the temperature-dependent coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus has led to the discovery of several compounds produced by the organism as a response to high density, low nutrient conditions. The three metabolites, along with (1) H NMR metabolic fingerprints of the nutrient limited samples, are proposed to serve as metabolic markers for extremely stressful conditions of V. coralliilyticus.
SourceAvailable from: Giacomo R. DiTullio[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to obtain metabolic profiles of the polar diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus, leading to the identification of a novel metabolite in this organism. Initial results from an ongoing metabolomics study have led to the discovery of isethionic acid (2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid, CAS: 107-36-8) as a major metabolite in F. cylindrus. This compound is being produced by the organism under normal culture conditions. This finding is the first report of a diatom producing isethionic acid. In addition to isethionic acid, four other metabolites, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), betaine, homarine, and proline were present and may serve as osmoprotectants in F. cylindrus. NMR-based metabolite profiles of F. cylindrus were obtained along a growth curve of the organism. The relative concentration levels of the five metabolites were monitored over a growth period of F. cylindrus from 18 to 25 days. All showed an increase in relative concentration with time, except for proline, which began to decrease after day 21.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 07/2012; 404(3):777-84. DOI:10.1007/s00216-012-6169-2 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pre-analytical treatments of bacteria are crucial steps in bacterial metabolomics studies. In order to achieve reliable samples that can best represent the global metabolic profile in vivo both qualitatively and quantitatively, many sample treatment procedures have been developed. The use of different methods makes it difficult to compare the results among different groups. In this work, E. coli samples were tested by using NMR spectroscopy. Both liquid N2 and cold methanol quenching procedures reduce the cell membrane integrity and cause metabolites leakage. However, liquid N2 quenching affected the cell viability and the NMR metabolites’ profile less than cold methanol procedure. Samples obtained by metabolite extraction were significantly superior over cell suspensions and cell lysates, with a higher number of detectable metabolites. Methanol/chloroform extraction proved most efficient at extraction of intracellular metabolites from both qualitative and quantitative points of view. Finally, standard operating procedures of bacterial sample treatments for NMR metabolomics study are presented.Metabolomics 04/2014; 10(2). DOI:10.1007/s11306-013-0571-4 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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