NMR analysis of metabolic responses to extreme conditions of the temperature-dependent coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus.
ABSTRACT To identify and understand the presence of metabolites responsible for the variation in the metabolic profile of Vibrio coralliilyticus under extreme conditions.
Multiple batches of V. coralliilyticus were grown under normal conditions. Four samples in one batch were subjected to extreme conditions via a freeze-thaw cycle during lyophilization. Polar metabolites were extracted using a combination of methanol, water and heat. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic profiles indicated significant differences between the normal and stressed samples. Three compounds identified in the stressed metabolome were maltose, ethanolamine, and the bioplastic-type compound (BTC) 2-butenoic acid, 2-carboxy-1-methylethyl ester. This is the first report of the production of this BTC by V. coralliilyticus.
The presence of maltose and ethanolamine indicates a state of acute nutrient limitation; therefore, we hypothesize that the cell's metabolism turned to its own cell wall, or perhaps neighbouring cells, for sources of carbon and nitrogen. The presence of the BTC also supports the acute nutrient limitation idea because of the parallels with polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production in other gram-negative bacteria, including other Vibrio species.
Recent metabolomics research on the temperature-dependent coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus has led to the discovery of several compounds produced by the organism as a response to high density, low nutrient conditions. The three metabolites, along with (1) H NMR metabolic fingerprints of the nutrient limited samples, are proposed to serve as metabolic markers for extremely stressful conditions of V. coralliilyticus.
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ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) are the main lipid components of the inner bacterial membrane. A computer model for such a membrane was built of palmitoyloleoyl PE (POPE) and palmitoyloleoyl PG (POPG) in the proportion 3:1, and sodium ions (Na+) to neutralize the net negative charge on each POPG (POPE-POPG bilayer). The bilayer was simulated for 25 ns. A final 10-ns trajectory fragment was used for analyses. In the bilayer interfacial region, POPEs and POPGs interact readily with one another via intermolecular hydrogen (H) bonds and water bridges. POPE is the main H-bond donor in either PEPE or PEPG H-bonds; PGPG H-bonds are rarely formed. Almost all POPEs are H-bonded and/or water bridged to either POPE or POPG but PE-PG links are favored. In effect, the atom packing in the near-the-interface regions of the bilayer core is tight. Na+ does not bind readily to lipids, and interlipid links via Na+ are not numerous. Although POPG and POPE comprise one bilayer, their bilayer properties differ. The average surface area per POPG is larger and the average vertical location of the POPG phosphate group is lower than those of POPE. Also, the alkyl chains of POPG are more ordered and less densely packed than the POPE chains. The main conclusion of this study is that in the PE-PG bilayer PE interacts more strongly with PG than with PE. This is a likely molecular-level event behind a regulating mechanism developed by the bacteria to control its membrane permeability and stability consisting in changes of the relative PG/PE concentration in the membrane.Biophysical Journal 03/2005; 88(2):1091-103. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ethanolamine can be used as a source of carbon and nitrogen by phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, the enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, is encoded by the gene tandem eutBC. Despite extensive studies of ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, much remains to be learned about EutBC structure and catalytic mechanism, about the evolutionary origin of ethanolamine utilization, and about regulatory links between the metabolism of ethanolamine itself and the ethanolamine-ammonia lyase cofactor adenosylcobalamin. We used computational analysis of sequences, structures, genome contexts, and phylogenies of ethanolamine-ammonia lyases to address these questions and to evaluate recent data-mining studies that have suggested an association between bacterial food poisoning and the diol utilization pathways. We found that EutBC evolution included recruitment of a TIM barrel and a Rossmann fold domain and their fusion to N-terminal alpha-helical domains to give EutB and EutC, respectively. This fusion was followed by recruitment and occasional loss of auxiliary ethanolamine utilization genes in Firmicutes and by several horizontal transfers, most notably from the firmicute stem to the Enterobacteriaceae and from Alphaproteobacteria to Actinobacteria. We identified a conserved DNA motif that likely represents the EutR-binding site and is shared by the ethanolamine and cobalamin operons in several enterobacterial species, suggesting a mechanism for coupling the biosyntheses of apoenzyme and cofactor in these species. Finally, we found that the food poisoning phenotype is associated with the structural components of metabolosome more strongly than with ethanolamine utilization genes or with paralogous propanediol utilization genes per se.Journal of bacteriology 09/2009; 191(23):7157-64. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Coral microbiology is an emerging field, driven largely by a desire to understand, and ultimately prevent, the worldwide destruction of coral reefs. The mucus layer, skeleton and tissues of healthy corals all contain large populations of eukaryotic algae, bacteria and archaea. These microorganisms confer benefits to their host by various mechanisms, including photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, the provision of nutrients and infection prevention. Conversely, in conditions of environmental stress, certain microorganisms cause coral bleaching and other diseases. Recent research indicates that corals can develop resistance to specific pathogens and adapt to higher environmental temperatures. To explain these findings the coral probiotic hypothesis proposes the occurrence of a dynamic relationship between symbiotic microorganisms and corals that selects for the coral holobiont that is best suited for the prevailing environmental conditions. Generalization of the coral probiotic hypothesis has led us to propose the hologenome theory of evolution.Nature Reviews Microbiology 06/2007; 5(5):355-62. · 22.49 Impact Factor