Draft consensus guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome

The Hospital For Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.31). 12/2011; 1242(1):40-55. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06349.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by pancreatic exocrine insufficiency and bone marrow failure, often associated with neurodevelopmental and skeletal abnormalities. Mutations in the SBDS gene have been shown to cause SDS. The purpose of this document is to provide draft guidelines for diagnosis, evaluation of organ and system abnormalities, and treatment of hematologic, pancreatic, dietary, dental, skeletal, and neurodevelopmental complications. New recommendations regarding diagnosis and management are presented, reflecting advances in understanding the genetic basis and clinical manifestations of the disease based on the consensus of experienced clinicians from Canada, Europe, and the United States. Whenever possible, evidence-based conclusions are made, but as with other rare diseases, the data on SDS are often anecdotal. The authors welcome comments from readers.

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Available from: Elizabeth N Kerr, Jun 28, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Patients with the Shwachman-Diamond syndrome often develop hematologic complications. No risk factors for these complications have so far been identified. The aim of this study was to classify the hematologic complications occurring in patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and to investigate the risk factors for these complications. DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and two patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, with a median follow-up of 11.6 years, were studied. Major hematologic complications were considered in the case of definitive severe cytopenia (i.e. anemia <7 g/dL or thrombocytopenia <20×10(9)/L), classified as malignant (myelodysplasia/leukemia) according to the 2008 World Health Organization classification or as non-malignant. RESULTS: Severe cytopenia was observed in 21 patients and classified as malignant severe cytopenia (n=9), non-malignant severe cytopenia (n=9) and malignant severe cytopenia preceded by non-malignant severe cytopenia (n=3). The 20-year cumulative risk of severe cytopenia was 24.3% (95% confidence interval: 15.3%-38.5%). Young age at first symptoms (<3 months) and low hematologic parameters both at diagnosis of the disease and during the follow-up were associated with severe hematologic complications (P<0.001). Fifteen novel SBDS mutations were identified. Genotype analysis showed no discernible prognostic value. Conclusions Patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome with very early symptoms or cytopenia at diagnosis (even mild anemia or thrombocytopenia) should be considered at a high risk of severe hematologic complications, malignant or non-malignant. Transient severe cytopenia or an indolent cytogenetic clone had no deleterious value.
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