Endoplasmic reticulum stress regulation of the Kar2p/BiP chaperone alleviates proteotoxicity via dual degradation pathways.
ABSTRACT The unfolded protein response (UPR) monitors and maintains protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In budding yeast, the UPR is a transcriptional regulatory pathway that is quiescent under normal conditions. Under conditions of acute ER stress, activation of UPR targets is essential for cell viability. How individual target genes contribute to stress tolerance is unclear. Uncovering these roles is hampered because most targets also play important functions in the absence of stress. To differentiate stress-specific roles from everyday functions, a single target gene was uncoupled from UPR control by eliminating its UPR-specific regulatory element. Through this approach, the UPR remains intact, aside from its inability to induce the designated target. Applying the strategy to the major ER chaperone Kar2p/BiP revealed the physiological function of increasing its cellular concentration. Despite hundreds of target genes under UPR control, we show that activation of KAR2 is indispensable to alleviate some forms of ER stress. Specifically, activation is essential to dispose misfolded proteins that are otherwise toxic. Surprisingly, induced BiP/Kar2p molecules are dedicated to alleviating stress. The inability to induce KAR2 under stress had no effect on its known housekeeping functions.
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ABSTRACT: Aberrant folding of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum activates the bifunctional transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease Ire1. Ire1 excises an intron from HAC1 messenger RNA in yeasts and Xbp1 messenger RNA in metozoans encoding homologous transcription factors. This non-conventional mRNA splicing event initiates the unfolded protein response, a transcriptional program that relieves the endoplasmic reticulum stress. Here we show that oligomerization is central to Ire1 function and is an intrinsic attribute of its cytosolic domains. We obtained the 3.2-A crystal structure of the oligomer of the Ire1 cytosolic domains in complex with a kinase inhibitor that acts as a potent activator of the Ire1 RNase. The structure reveals a rod-shaped assembly that has no known precedence among kinases. This assembly positions the kinase domain for trans-autophosphorylation, orders the RNase domain, and creates an interaction surface for binding of the mRNA substrate. Activation of Ire1 through oligomerization expands the mechanistic repertoire of kinase-based signalling receptors.Nature 01/2009; 457(7230):687-93. · 36.28 Impact Factor
Article: Inositol deacylation by Bst1p is required for the quality control of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Misfolded proteins are recognized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), transported back to the cytosol, and degraded by the proteasome. A number of proteins are processed and modified by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor in the ER, but the quality control mechanisms of GPI-anchored proteins remain unclear. Here, we report on the quality control mechanism of misfolded GPI-anchored proteins. We have constructed a mutant form of the beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferase Gas1p (Gas1*p) as a model misfolded GPI-anchored protein. Gas1*p was modified with a GPI anchor but retained in the ER and was degraded rapidly via the proteasome. Disruption of BST1, which encodes GPI inositol deacylase, caused a delay in the degradation of Gas1*p. This delay was because of an effect on the deacylation activity of Bst1p. Disruption of genes involved in GPI-anchored protein concentration and N-glycan processing caused different effects on the degradation of Gas1*p and a soluble misfolded version of carboxypeptidase Y. Furthermore, Gas1*p associated with both Bst1p and BiP/Kar2p, a molecular chaperone, in vivo. Our data suggest that GPI inositol deacylation plays important roles in the quality control and ER-associated degradation of GPI-anchored proteins.Molecular Biology of the Cell 03/2006; 17(2):834-50. · 4.94 Impact Factor
Article: Functional and genomic analyses reveal an essential coordination between the unfolded protein response and ER-associated degradation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The unfolded protein response (UPR) regulates gene expression in response to stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We determined the transcriptional scope of the UPR using DNA microarrays. Rather than regulating only ER-resident chaperones and phospholipid biosynthesis, as anticipated from earlier work, the UPR affects multiple ER and secretory pathway functions. Studies of UPR targets engaged in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) reveal an intimate coordination between these responses: efficient ERAD requires an intact UPR, and UPR induction increases ERAD capacity. Conversely, loss of ERAD leads to constitutive UPR induction. Finally, simultaneous loss of ERAD and the UPR greatly decreases cell viability. Thus, the UPR and ERAD are dynamic responses required for the coordinated disposal of misfolded proteins even in the absence of acute stress.Cell 05/2000; 101(3):249-58. · 32.40 Impact Factor