Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β-positive telocytes in skeletal muscle interstitium.
ABSTRACT Telocytes (TCs) represent a new cell type recently described in mammalian skeletal muscle interstitium as well as in other organs. These have a specific morphology and phenotype, both in situ and in vitro. Telocytes are cells with long and slender cell prolongations, in contact with other interstitial cells, nerve fibres, blood capillaries and resident stem cells in niches. Our aim was to investigate the potential contribution of TCs to micro-vascular networks by immunofluorescent labelling of specific angiogenic growth factors and receptors. We found that in human skeletal muscle TCs were constantly located around intermediate and small blood vessels and endomysial capillaries. Epi-fluorescence and laser confocal microscopy showed that TCs express c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-β and VEGF, both in situ and in vitro. Telocytes were constantly located in the perivascular or pericapillary space, as confirmed by double staining of c-kit/CD31, PDGFR-β/CD31 and PDGFR-β/α-smooth muscle actin, respectively. Electron microscopy (EM) differentiated between pericytes and other cell types. Laminin labelling showed that TCs are not enclosed or surrounded by a basal lamina in contrast to mural cells. In conclusion, a) PDGFR-β could be used as a marker for TCs and b) TCs are presumably a transitional population in the complex process of mural cell recruitment during angiogenesis and vascular remodelling.
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ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine whether the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is critical for coronary collateral growth. Previous studies have provided an association between coronary collateral growth and VEGF, but none have allowed determination of a causal role. We measured coronary collateral growth in rats subjected to repetitive episodes of myocardial ischemia (RI; one 40-second occlusion every 20 minutes for 2 hours 40 minutes, followed by 5 hours 20 minutes of rest, with this 8-hour cycle repeated 3 times per day for 10 days). Collateral growth was measured from blood flow (radioactive microspheres), visualization of arterial-arterial anastomoses (x-ray micro-CT), and maintenance of function during complete coronary occlusion in 3 groups of animals: sham (received instrumentation but no RI), experimental (subjected to RI), and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (RI+anti-VEGF 0.6 mg/100 g per day) to block the endogenous actions of VEGF. In the 3 groups, native collateral flow (measurement for RI or sham protocol) averaged 0.2 to 0.3 mL x min(-1) x g(-1) of tissue. In the sham group, collateral flow did not increase during the protocol. Collateral flow in the control RI group increased by approximately 6-fold to 1.63 mL x min(-1) x g(-1) tissue, but in the anti-VEGF group, collateral flow did not increase after the RI protocol (0.22 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)). In acute experiments, collateral flow was unchanged during vasodilation with dipyridamole, indicating the increases in collateral flow are due to collateral growth and not vasodilation. X-ray micro-CT analysis revealed a 3-fold increase (versus sham group) in the number of arterial-arterial anastomoses per heart after RI, which was prevented by treatment with anti-VEGF. The growth of the collateral circulation was functional in the RI group because complete coronary occlusion did not induce any untoward effects on hemodynamics or arrhythmias. In the sham or anti-VEGF groups, coronary occlusion at the end of the protocol induced many arrhythmias and deterioration of function. From these results, we conclude that the expression of VEGF is critical to the growth of coronary collaterals.Circulation 11/2005; 112(14):2108-13. · 15.20 Impact Factor
Article: Angiogenesis: where do we stand now?Circulation 04/2005; 111(12):1556-66. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preclinical and clinical evaluations of individual proangiogenic/arteriogenic factors for the treatment of ischemic myocardium and skeletal muscle have produced unfulfilled promises. The establishment of functional and stable arterial vascular networks may require combinations of different angiogenic and arteriogenic factors. Using in vivo angiogenesis and ischemic hind-limb animal models, we have compared the angiogenic and therapeutic activities of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in combinations with PDGF-AA and PDGF-AB, two members of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family, with distinct receptor binding patterns. We show that both PDGF-AA/FGF-2 and PDGF-AB/FGF-2 in combinations synergistically induce angiogenesis in the mouse cornea. FGF-2 up-regulates PDGFR-alpha and -beta expression levels in the newly formed blood vessels. Interestingly, PDGF-AB/FGF-2, but not PDGF-AA/FGF-2, is able to stabilize the newly formed vasculature by recruiting pericytes, and an anti-PDGFR-beta neutralizing antibody significantly blocks PDGF-AB/FGF-2-induced vessel stability. These findings demonstrate that PDGFR-beta receptor is essential for vascular stability. Similarly, PDGF-AB/FGF-2 significantly induces stable collateral growth in the rat ischemic hind limb. The high number of collaterals induced by PDGF-AB/FGF-2 leads to dramatic improvement of the paw's skin perfusion. Immunohistochemical analysis of the treated skeletal muscles confirms that a combination of PDGF-AB and FGF-2 significantly induces arteriogenesis in the ischemic tissue. A combination of PDGF-AB and FGF-2 would be optimal proangiogenic agents for the treatment of ischemic diseases.The FASEB Journal 10/2008; 23(1):153-63. · 5.70 Impact Factor