Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β-positive telocytes in skeletal muscle interstitium.
ABSTRACT Telocytes (TCs) represent a new cell type recently described in mammalian skeletal muscle interstitium as well as in other organs. These have a specific morphology and phenotype, both in situ and in vitro. Telocytes are cells with long and slender cell prolongations, in contact with other interstitial cells, nerve fibres, blood capillaries and resident stem cells in niches. Our aim was to investigate the potential contribution of TCs to micro-vascular networks by immunofluorescent labelling of specific angiogenic growth factors and receptors. We found that in human skeletal muscle TCs were constantly located around intermediate and small blood vessels and endomysial capillaries. Epi-fluorescence and laser confocal microscopy showed that TCs express c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-β and VEGF, both in situ and in vitro. Telocytes were constantly located in the perivascular or pericapillary space, as confirmed by double staining of c-kit/CD31, PDGFR-β/CD31 and PDGFR-β/α-smooth muscle actin, respectively. Electron microscopy (EM) differentiated between pericytes and other cell types. Laminin labelling showed that TCs are not enclosed or surrounded by a basal lamina in contrast to mural cells. In conclusion, a) PDGFR-β could be used as a marker for TCs and b) TCs are presumably a transitional population in the complex process of mural cell recruitment during angiogenesis and vascular remodelling.
Article: Telocytes in human oesophagus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Telocytes (TCs), a new type of interstitial cells, were identified in many different organs and tissues of mammalians and humans. In this study, we show the presence, in human oesophagus, of cells having the typical features of TCs in lamina propria of the mucosa, as well as in muscular layers. We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and primary cell culture. Human oesophageal TCs present a small cell body with 2-3 very long Telopodes (Tps). Tps consist of an alternation of thin segments (podomers) and thick segments (podoms) and have a labyrinthine spatial arrangement. Tps establish close contacts ('stromal synapses') with other neighbouring cells (e.g. lymphocytes, macrophages). The ELISA testing of the supernatant of primary culture of TCs indicated that the concentrations of VEGF and EGF increased progressively. In conclusion, our study shows the existence of typical TCs at the level of oesophagus (mucosa, submucosa and muscular layer) and suggests their possible role in tissue repair.Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 11/2013; · 4.75 Impact Factor
Article: Telocytes in Crohn's disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) is a relapsing chronic inflammatory disorder that may involve all the gastrointestinal tract with a prevalence of terminal ileum. Intestinal lesions have a characteristic discontinuous and segmental distribution and may affect all layers of the gut wall. Telocytes (TC), a peculiar type of stromal cells, have been recently identified in a variety of tissues and organs, including gastrointestinal tract of humans and mammals. Several roles have been proposed for TC, including mechanical support, spatial relationships with different cell types, intercellular signalling and modulation of intestinal motility. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence and distribution of TC in disease-affected and -unaffected ileal specimens from CD patients compared with controls. TC were identified by CD34/PDGFRα immunohistochemistry. In affected CD specimens TC disappeared, particularly where fibrosis and architectural derangement of the intestinal wall were observed. In the thickened muscularis mucosae and submucosa, few TC entrapped in the fibrotic extracellular matrix were found. A discontinuous network of TC was present around smooth muscle bundles, ganglia and enteric strands in the altered muscularis propria. At the myenteric plexus, the loss of TC network was paralleled by the loss of interstitial cells of Cajal network. In the unaffected CD specimens, TC were preserved in their distribution. Our results suggest that in CD the loss of TC might have important pathophysiological implications contributing to the architectural derangement of the intestinal wall and gut dysmotility. Further functional studies are necessary to better clarify the role of TC loss in CD pathophysiology.Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 11/2013; · 4.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thickening of the inflamed intestinal wall involves growth of smooth muscle cells (SMC), which contributes to stricture formation. Earlier, the growth factor platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB was identified as a key mitogen for SMC from the rat colon (CSMC), and CSMC growth in colitis was associated with both appearance of its receptor, PDGF-Rβ and modulation of phenotype. Here, we examined the role of inflammatory cytokines in inducing and modulating the growth response to PDGF-BB. CSMC were enzymatically isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, and the effect of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, transforming growth factor (TGF), IL-17A and IL-2 on CSMC growth and responsiveness to PDGF-BB were assessed using proliferation assays, PCR and western blotting. Conditioned medium (CM) was obtained at 48 hrs of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis. Neither CM alone nor cytokines caused proliferation of early-passage CSMC. However, CM from inflamed, but not control colon significantly promoted the effect of PDGF-BB. IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-17A, but not other cytokines, increased the effect of PDGF-BB because of up-regulation of mRNA and protein for PDGF-Rβ without change in receptor phosphorylation. PDGF-BB was identified in adult rat serum (RS) and RS-induced CSMC proliferation was inhibited by imatinib, suggesting that blood-derived PDGF-BB is a local mitogen in vivo. In freshly isolated CSMC, CM from the inflamed colon as well as IL-1β and TNF-α induced the early expression of PDGF-Rβ, while imatinib blocked subsequent RS-induced cell proliferation. Thus, pro-inflammatory cytokines both initiate and maintain a growth response in CSMC via PDGF-Rβ and serum-derived PDGF-BB, and control of PDGF-Rβ expression may be beneficial in chronic intestinal inflammation.Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 01/2014; · 4.75 Impact Factor