Article

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β-positive telocytes in skeletal muscle interstitium.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.75). 12/2011; 16(4):701-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2011.01505.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Telocytes (TCs) represent a new cell type recently described in mammalian skeletal muscle interstitium as well as in other organs. These have a specific morphology and phenotype, both in situ and in vitro. Telocytes are cells with long and slender cell prolongations, in contact with other interstitial cells, nerve fibres, blood capillaries and resident stem cells in niches. Our aim was to investigate the potential contribution of TCs to micro-vascular networks by immunofluorescent labelling of specific angiogenic growth factors and receptors. We found that in human skeletal muscle TCs were constantly located around intermediate and small blood vessels and endomysial capillaries. Epi-fluorescence and laser confocal microscopy showed that TCs express c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-β and VEGF, both in situ and in vitro. Telocytes were constantly located in the perivascular or pericapillary space, as confirmed by double staining of c-kit/CD31, PDGFR-β/CD31 and PDGFR-β/α-smooth muscle actin, respectively. Electron microscopy (EM) differentiated between pericytes and other cell types. Laminin labelling showed that TCs are not enclosed or surrounded by a basal lamina in contrast to mural cells. In conclusion, a) PDGFR-β could be used as a marker for TCs and b) TCs are presumably a transitional population in the complex process of mural cell recruitment during angiogenesis and vascular remodelling.

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    ABSTRACT: Telocytes (TCs) are a unique type of interstitial cells with specific, extremely long prolongations named telopodes (Tps). Our previous study showed that TCs are distinct from fibroblasts (Fbs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as concerns gene expression and proteomics. The present study explores patterns of mouse TC-specific gene profiles on chromosome 1. We investigated the network of main genes and the potential functional correlations. We compared gene expression profiles of mouse pulmonary TCs, MSCs, Fbs, alveolar type II cells (ATII), airway basal cells (ABCs), proximal airway cells (PACs), CD8+ T cells from bronchial lymph nodes (T-BL) and CD8+ T cells from lungs (T-LL). The functional and feature networks were identified and compared by bioinformatics tools. Our data showed that on TC chromosome 1, there are about 25% up-regulated and 70% down-regulated genes (more than onefold) as compared with the other cells respectively. Capn2, Fhl2 and Qsox1 were over-expressed in TCs compared to the other cells, indicating that biological functions of TCs are mainly associated with morphogenesis and local tissue homoeostasis. TCs seem to have important roles in the prevention of tissue inflammation and fibrogenesis development in lung inflammatory diseases and as modulators of immune cell response. In conclusion, TCs are distinct from the other cell types.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 05/2014; 18(5). · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Telocytes (TCs) are a novel type of interstitial cell of whom presence has been recently documented in many tissues and organs. However, whether TCs exists in bone marrow is still not reported. This study aims to find out TCs in mice bone marrow by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). SEM images showed that in mice bone marrow most of TCs have small spherical cell body (usually 4–6 μm diameter) with thin long telopodes (Tps; usually one to three). The longest Tp observed was about 70 μm, with an uneven calibre. Direct intercellular contacts exist between TCs. TEM shows mitochondria within dilations of Tps. Also, by TEM, we show the close spatial relations of Tps with blood vessels. In conclusion, this study provides ultrastructural evidence regarding the existence of TCs in mice bone marrow, in situ.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 06/2014; 18(6). · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Telocytes (TCs) are described as a particular type of cells of the interstitial space (www.telocytes.com). Their main characteristics are the very long telopodes with alternating podoms and podomers. Recently, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of human lung TCs with fibroblasts, demonstrating that TCs are clearly a distinct cell type. Therefore, the present study aims to reinforce this idea by comparing lung TCs with endothelial cells (ECs), since TCs and ECs share immunopositivity for CD34. We applied isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) combined with automated 2-D nano-ESI LC-MS/MS to analyse proteins extracted from TCs and ECs in primary cell cultures. In total, 1609 proteins were identified in cell cultures. 98 proteins (the 5th day), and 82 proteins (10th day) were confidently quantified (screened by two-sample t-test, P < 0.05) as up- or down-regulated (fold change >2). We found that in TCs there are 38 up-regulated proteins at the 5th day and 26 up-regulated proteins at the 10th day. Bioinformatics analysis using Panther revealed that the 38 proteins associated with TCs represented cellular functions such as intercellular communication (via vesicle mediated transport) and structure morphogenesis, being mainly cytoskeletal proteins and oxidoreductases. In addition, we found 60 up-regulated proteins in ECs e.g.: cell surface glycoprotein MUC18 (15.54-fold) and von Willebrand factor (5.74-fold). The 26 up-regulated proteins in TCs at 10th day, were also analysed and confirmed the same major cellular functions, while the 56 down-regulated proteins confirmed again their specificity for ECs. In conclusion, we report here the first extensive comparison of proteins from TCs and ECs using a quantitative proteomics approach. Our data show that TCs are completely different from ECs. Protein expression profile showed that TCs play specific roles in intercellular communication and intercellular signalling. Moreover, they might inhibit the oxidative stress and cellular ageing and may have pro-proliferative effects through the inhibition of apoptosis. The group of proteins identified in this study needs to be explored further for the role in pathogenesis of lung disease.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 06/2014; 18(6). · 4.75 Impact Factor

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