Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1% to 5% of the adult population each year in Europe. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and in people with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid [co-amoxiclav], doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides; different doses, long-course regimens), antihistamines, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intranasal).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute rhinosinusitis is one of the most common reasons for prescribing antibiotics in primary care. However, it is not clear whether antibiotics improve the outcome for patients with clinically diagnosed acute rhinosinusitis. We evaluated the effect of a combination product of amoxicillin-potassium clavulanate on adults with acute rhinosinusitis that was clinically diagnosed in a general practice setting.
We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial with 252 adults recruited at 24 general practices and 2 outpatient clinics. Each patient had a history of purulent nasal discharge and maxillary or frontal pain for at least 48 hours. Patients were given amoxicillin, 875 mg, and clavulanic acid, 125 mg, or placebo twice daily for 6 days. Main outcome measures were time to cure (primary outcome), number of days during which rhinosinusitis restricted activities at home or work, and frequency of adverse effects (secondary outcomes).
The adjusted hazard ratio for the effect of amoxicillin-clavulanate was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-1.45) on time to cure and 1.28 (95% CI, 0.80-2.05) in the prespecified subgroup of patients with a positive rhinoscopy result. At 7 days the mean difference between amoxicillin-clavulanate and placebo was -0.29 (95% CI, -0.93 to 0.34) in the number of days with restrictions due to rhinosinusitis and -0.60 (95% CI, -1.41 to 0.21) in patients with a positive rhinoscopy result. At 7 days patients who took amoxicillin-clavulanate were more likely to have diarrhea (odds ratio, 3.89; 95% CI, 2.09-7.25).
Adult patients in general practice with clinically diagnosed acute rhinosinusitis experience no advantage with antibiotic treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate and are more likely to experience adverse effects.
Archives of Internal Medicine 08/2003; 163(15):1793-8. DOI:10.1001/archinte.163.15.1793 · 17.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the effectiveness of penicillin V and amoxycillin with placebo in treatment of adult patients with acute sinusitis.
Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial.
Norwegian general practice.
130 adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute sinusitis confirmed by computed tomography.
Subjective status after three and 10 days of treatment, difference in clinical severity score between day 0 and day 10 as evaluated by the general practitioner, difference in score from computed tomography on day 0 and day 10, and duration of sinusitis.
Amoxycillin and penicillin V led to significantly faster and better recovery than placebo. By day 10, 71 patients receiving antibiotic treatment- (86%) considered themselves to be recovered or much better compared with 25 (57%) receiving placebo. The mean (95% confidence interval) reductions in clinical severity scores by day 10 were 5.4 (5.0 to 5.8) for penicillin V, 5.5 (4.9 to 6.0 for amoxycillin, and 3.4 (2.8 to 4.0) for placebo. For the antibiotic groups combined the number of patients with the greatest degree of improvement on computed tomography (scale 0-16)-that is, score 5-16 on day 10-was 31/83 (37%) compared with 10/44 (23%) receiving placebo. The median duration of the sinusitis was nine days in the amoxycillin group, 11 days in the penicillin V group, and 17 days in the placebo group.
Penicillin V and amoxycillin are significantly more effective than placebo in the treatment of acute sinusitis.
BMJ Clinical Research 09/1996; 313(7053):325-9. DOI:10.1136/bmj.313.7053.325 · 14.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clarithromycin has an established bacteriologic efficacy and safety profile in the treatment of respiratory tract infections.
This study compares the efficacy and tolerability of extended-release and immediate-release formulations of clarithromycin in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis.
Fourteen days' treatment with once-daily clarithromycin was compared with the immediate-release, twice-daily formulation in a phase III, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter study. Patients aged > or =12 years with signs, symptoms, and a radiologically confirmed diagnosis of acute maxillary sinusitis were eligible. Patients were assessed before treatment, within 48 hours after treatment, on study days 16 to 18, and at the test-of-cure visit on study days 24 to 31. Patients who received > or =1 dose of study drug were included in the safety analysis.
Of 283 patients treated, 245 were included in the efficacy analysis (122 in the extended-release group, 123 in the immediate-release group). Treatment groups were well matched with respect to demographic characteristics and medical condition and history. At the test-of-cure visit, 85% of patients in the clarithromycin extended-release group and 79% in the immediate-release group were deemed clinical cures; 89% and 91% in the extended-release and immediate-release groups, respectively, demonstrated radiographic success. Overall incidences of study drug-related adverse events were similar in the 2 treatment groups (32% in the extended-release group and 28% in the immediate-release group); however, significantly fewer patients receiving extended-release clarithromycin (2/142 11%]), compared with those receiving the immediate-release formulation (10/141 [7%]: P = 0.02) discontinued therapy because of drug-related gastrointestinal symptoms or abnormal taste. No clinically meaningful changes in laboratory values or vital signs were observed during the study.
Although the efficacy of the 2 formulations was comparable, once-daily clarithromycin extended-release was better tolerated than the twice-daily immediate-release formulation by patients with acute maxillary sinusitis.
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