The transcriptional coactivator TAZ regulates mesenchymal differentiation in malignant glioma.

Department of Pathology, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Genes & development (Impact Factor: 12.64). 12/2011; 25(24):2594-609. DOI: 10.1101/gad.176800.111
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent molecular classification of glioblastoma (GBM) has shown that patients with a mesenchymal (MES) gene expression signature exhibit poor overall survival and treatment resistance. Using regulatory network analysis of available expression microarray data sets of GBM, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we identified the transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), to be highly associated with the MES network. TAZ expression was lower in proneural (PN) GBMs and lower-grade gliomas, which correlated with CpG island hypermethylation of the TAZ promoter compared with MES GBMs. Silencing of TAZ in MES glioma stem cells (GSCs) decreased expression of MES markers, invasion, self-renewal, and tumor formation. Conversely, overexpression of TAZ in PN GSCs as well as murine neural stem cells (NSCs) induced MES marker expression and aberrant osteoblastic and chondrocytic differentiation in a TEAD-dependent fashion. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we show that TAZ is directly recruited to a majority of MES gene promoters in a complex with TEAD2. The coexpression of TAZ, but not a mutated form of TAZ that lacks TEAD binding, with platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) resulted in high-grade tumors with MES features in a murine model of glioma. Our studies uncover a direct role for TAZ and TEAD in driving the MES differentiation of malignant glioma.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tumor heterogeneity of adult high-grade glioma (HGG) is recognized in 3 major subtypes based on core gene signatures. However, the molecular signatures and clinical implications of glioma stem cells (GSCs) in individual HGG subtypes remain poorly characterized. Recently genome-wide transcriptional analysis identified two mutually exclusive GSC subtypes with distinct dysregulated signaling and metabolic pathways. Analysis of genetic profiles and phenotypic assays distinguished proneural (PN) from mesenchymal (MES) GSCs and revealed a striking correlation with the corresponding PN or MES HGGs. Similar to HGGs with a MES signature, MES GSCs display more aggressive phenotypes both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, MES GSCs are markedly resistant to radiation as compared with PN GSCs, consistent with the relative radiation resistance of MES GBM compared with other subtypes. A systems biology approach has identified a set of transcription factors as the master regulators for the MES signature. Metabolic reprogramming in MES GSCs has also been noticed with the prominent activation of the glycolytic pathway, comprising aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family genes. This review summarizes recent progress in the characterization of the molecular signature in distinct HGG and GSC subtypes and plasticity between different GSC subtypes as well as between GSCs and non-GSCs in HGG tumors. Clinical implications of the translational GSC research are also discussed.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 11/2014; 122(2):1-7. DOI:10.3171/2014.9.JNS132253 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor due to the resistance to conventional therapies, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. TAZ, an important mediator of the Hippo pathway, was found to be up-regulated in diverse cancers, including in GBM, and plays important roles in tumor initiation and progression. However, little is known about the regulation of TAZ expression in tumors. In this study, we found that miR-125a-5p is an important regulator of TAZ in glioma cells by directly targeting the TAZ 3' UTR. MiR-125a-5p levels are inversely correlated with that of TAZ in normal astrocytes and a panel of glioma cell lines. MiR-125a-5p represses the expression of TAZ target genes, including CTGF and survivin, and inhibits cell proliferation and induces the differentiation of GBM cells; whereas over-expression of TAZ rescues the effects of miR-125a-5p. This study revealed a mechanism for TAZ deregulation in glioma cells, and also demonstrated a tumor suppressor role of miR-125a-5p in glioblastoma cells. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014; 457(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.12.078 · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cholesterol reducing drugs, statins, exhibit anti-tumor effects against cancer stem cells and various cancer cell lines, exert potent additivity or synergy with existing chemotherapeutics in animal models of cancer and may reduce cancer incidence and cancer related mortality in humans. However, not all tumor cell lines are sensitive to statins, and clinical trials have demonstrated mixed outcomes regarding statins as anticancer agents. Here, we show that statin-induced reduction in intracellular cholesterol levels correlate with the growth inhibition of cancer cell lines upon statin treatment. Moreover, statin sensitivity segregates with abundant cytosolic vimentin expression and absent cell surface E-cadherin expression, a pattern characteristic of mesenchymal-like cells. Exogenous expression of cell surface E-cadherin converts statin- sensitive cells to a partially resistant state implying that statin resistance is in part dependent on the tumor cells attaining an epithelial phenotype. As metastasizing tumor cells undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition during the initiation of the metastatic cascade, statin therapy may represent an effective approach to targeting the cells most likely to disseminate.
    Scientific Reports 12/2014; 4:7593. DOI:10.1038/srep07593 · 5.08 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 2, 2014