Factors predicting the outcome of conservatively treated adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: an analysis of 166 cases.
ABSTRACT The present study assessed the clinical outcome of patients conservatively treated for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and their predictive factors using univariate and multivariate population averaged (PA) generalized estimating equation (GEE) model in a longitudinal setting.
A series of 166 consecutive women (mean age 39.8 yrs; range 23-63 yrs) underwent conservative treatment of AIS as the primary treatment and were followed-up (mean 40.9 mo) using colposcopy, PAP-smear, biopsy and HPV-testing with Hybrid Capture 2.
Hysterectomy was performed as part of the primary management in 47 patients, who were excluded from the follow-up (FU) analysis. Out of 119 women closely followed-up, additional therapeutic procedures were performed in 69. At study conclusion, 7 patients (5.9%) showed persistent disease, while 8 (6.7%) had progressed to invasive adenocarcinoma (AC). Positive HR-HPV test was the only independent predictor of disease recurrence (adjusted OR=2.72; 95%CI 1.08-6.87), and together with free cone margins (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.04-0.92), HR-HPV positivity was also the single most powerful predictor of disease progression to AC, with OR=3.74; 95%CI 1.84-7.61 (p=0.0001) in multivariate PA-GEE.
These results suggest that testing HR-HPV positive at any time point during FU is the most significant independent predictor of progressive disease, while showing free margins in cone has a significant protective effect against progression to AC. Furthermore, because 4.3% women with persistent, recurrent or progressive disease experienced a late (5th and 6th FU) diagnosis of HG-CGIN or microinvasive AC, a close surveillance should be scheduled for at least three years in conservatively treated AIS patients.
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ABSTRACT: To determine factors associated with the presence of residual disease in women who have undergone cervical conization for adenocarcinoma in situ (ACIS) of the cervix. We identified women who underwent a cervical conization for a diagnosis of ACIS followed by repeat conization or hysterectomy between January 1, 1995 and April 30, 2010. Data were summarized using standard descriptive statistics. 78 patients met study criteria. The presence of ACIS at the internal conization margin or in the postconization endocervical curettage (ECC) correlated with residual ACIS (p<0.001). A margin positive for ACIS was associated with residual glandular neoplasia in 68% of cases. An ECC positive for ACIS was associated with residual ACIS in 95% of cases. If both the margins and the ECC were positive for the presence of ACIS, 8% did not have residual disease, 77% had residual ACIS and 15% had invasive adenocarcinoma. If both the internal conization margin and the postconization ECC were negative for the presence of ACIS, 14% of the final specimens had residual ACIS and none had invasive cancer. The addition of postconization ECC to cone biopsy for ACIS of the cervix provides valuable prognostic information regarding the risk of residual ACIS. Women with ACIS who have both a negative postconization ECC and a negative conization margin have a 14% risk for residual ACIS and can be treated conservatively if desiring fertility. A positive postconization ECC or internal margin incurs significant risk of residual disease and 12-17% will have cancer.American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 12/2013; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is increasing in incidence among reproductive-age women. Cervical conization is an alternative to hysterectomy that allows future fertility, however reports regarding the risk of residual AIS and underlying adenocarcinoma are conflicting. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes of a large cohort of women treated for AIS. METHODS: The medical records of 180 women with cervical AIS evaluated at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and its outlying clinics between 1983 and 2011 were reviewed for demographic information, treatment history, pathologic findings and outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 33.8 years (range 17.6-76.1 years). 172 of the 180 women had at least one cone biopsy performed, with 110 (64.0%) undergoing a cold knife cone (CKC), and 62 (36.0%) undergoing a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) as their initial method of treatment. Positive margins were noted in 35.0% of patients undergoing CKC compared with 55.6% undergoing LEEP (p=0.017). 71 patients ultimately underwent hysterectomy with residual disease noted in 10 patients (14.1%), 8 patients (11.3%) with residual AIS and 2 patients (2.8%) with invasive carcinoma. Of the 101 patients who did not undergo hysterectomy, 2 patients (2.0%) developed recurrent AIS at a median of 27.5 months (range 18- 37 months) from the last cone, and none developed invasive carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing conservative management for AIS with cervical conization alone should be monitored closely and counseled regarding the potential risks of residual and recurrent disease, even when negative cone margins are obtained.Gynecologic Oncology 03/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A group of 47 experts representing 23 professional societies, national and international health organizations, and federal agencies met in Bethesda, MD, September 14-15, 2012, to revise the 2006 American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology Consensus Guidelines. The group's goal was to provide revised evidence-based consensus guidelines for managing women with abnormal cervical cancer screening tests, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) following adoption of cervical cancer screening guidelines incorporating longer screening intervals and co-testing. In addition to literature review, data from almost 1.4 million women in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Care Plan provided evidence on risk after abnormal tests. Where data were available, guidelines prescribed similar management for women with similar risks for CIN 3, AIS, and cancer. Most prior guidelines were reaffirmed. Examples of updates include: Human papillomavirus-negative atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance results are followed with co-testing at 3 years before return to routine screening and are not sufficient for exiting women from screening at age 65 years; women aged 21-24 years need less invasive management, especially for minor abnormalities; postcolposcopy management strategies incorporate co-testing; endocervical sampling reported as CIN 1 should be managed as CIN 1; unsatisfactory cytology should be repeated in most circumstances, even when HPV results from co-testing are known, while most cases of negative cytology with absent or insufficient endocervical cells or transformation zone component can be managed without intensive follow-up.Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease 04/2013; 17(5 Suppl 1):S1-S27. · 1.21 Impact Factor