New Standards for Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease Treatment

Departments of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine Boston, MA, USA.
Frontiers in Neurology 12/2011; 2:77. DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2011.00077
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prognosis of patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis who fail antithrombotic therapy. The outcome of patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis who fail antithrombotic therapy is unknown. These patients may represent the target group for investigation of more aggressive therapies such as intracranial angioplasty. The authors performed a chart review and telephone interview of patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis identified in the Stanford Stroke Center clinical database. A Cox regression model was created to identify factors predictive of failure of antithrombotic therapy. The authors generated Kaplan-Meier survival curves to determine the timing of recurrent TIA, stroke, or death after failure of antithrombotic therapy. Fifty-two patients had symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis and fulfilled entry criteria. Twenty-nine of the 52 patients (55.8%) had cerebral ischemic events while receiving an antithrombotic agent (antiplatelet agents [55%], warfarin [31%], or heparin [14%]). In a Cox regression model, older age was an independent predictor of failure of antithrombotic therapy, and warfarin use was associated with a decrease in risk. Recurrent TIA (n = 7), nonfatal/fatal stroke (n = 6/1), or death (n = 1) occurred in 15 of 29 (51.7%) of the patients who failed antithrombotic therapy. The median time to recurrent TIA, stroke, or death was 36 days (95% CI 13 to 59). Patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis who fail antithrombotic therapy have extremely high rates of recurrent TIA/stroke or death. Recurrent ischemic events typically occur within a few months after failure of standard medical therapy. The high recurrence risk observed warrants testing of alternative treatment strategies such as intracranial angioplasty.
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    ABSTRACT: Angioplasty and stent placement have been reported for the treatment of intracranial stenosis. This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and long-term clinical outcome of angioplasty without stent placement for patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis. A retrospective study was done to evaluate 36 patients with 37 symptomatic atherosclerotic intracranial stenosis who underwent primary balloon angioplasty. All patients had symptoms despite medical therapy. Thirty-four patients were available for follow-up ranging from 6 to 128 months. Mean follow-up was 52.9 months. Mean pretreatment stenosis was 84.2% before angioplasty and 43.3% after angioplasty. The periprocedural death and stroke rate was 8.3% (two deaths and one minor stroke). Two patients had strokes in the territory of angioplasty at 2 and 37 months after angioplasty. The annual stroke rate in the territory appropriate to the site of angioplasty was 3.36%, and for those patients with a residual stenosis of > or =50% it was 4.5%. Patients with iatrogenic dissection (n=11) did not have transient ischemic attacks or strokes after treatment. Results of long-term follow-up suggest that intracranial angioplasty without stent placement reduces the risk of further stroke in symptomatic patients.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 03/2005; 26(3):525-30. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerotic intracranial arterial stenosis is an important cause of stroke that is increasingly being treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTAS) to prevent recurrent stroke. However, PTAS has not been compared with medical management in a randomized trial. We randomly assigned patients who had a recent transient ischemic attack or stroke attributed to stenosis of 70 to 99% of the diameter of a major intracranial artery to aggressive medical management alone or aggressive medical management plus PTAS with the use of the Wingspan stent system. The primary end point was stroke or death within 30 days after enrollment or after a revascularization procedure for the qualifying lesion during the follow-up period or stroke in the territory of the qualifying artery beyond 30 days. Enrollment was stopped after 451 patients underwent randomization, because the 30-day rate of stroke or death was 14.7% in the PTAS group (nonfatal stroke, 12.5%; fatal stroke, 2.2%) and 5.8% in the medical-management group (nonfatal stroke, 5.3%; non-stroke-related death, 0.4%) (P=0.002). Beyond 30 days, stroke in the same territory occurred in 13 patients in each group. Currently, the mean duration of follow-up, which is ongoing, is 11.9 months. The probability of the occurrence of a primary end-point event over time differed significantly between the two treatment groups (P=0.009), with 1-year rates of the primary end point of 20.0% in the PTAS group and 12.2% in the medical-management group. In patients with intracranial arterial stenosis, aggressive medical management was superior to PTAS with the use of the Wingspan stent system, both because the risk of early stroke after PTAS was high and because the risk of stroke with aggressive medical therapy alone was lower than expected. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others; SAMMPRIS number, NCT00576693.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 09/2011; 365(11):993-1003. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1105335 · 55.87 Impact Factor


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