Cloning, expression and characterization of CYP102D1, a self-sufficient P450 monooxygenase from Streptomyces avermitilis.
ABSTRACT Among 33 cytochrome P450s (CYPs) of Streptomyces avermitilis, CYP102D1 encoded by the sav575 gene is naturally a unique and self-sufficient CYP. Since the native cyp102D1 gene could not be expressed well in Escherichia coli, its expression was attempted using codon-optimized synthetic DNA. The gene was successfully overexpressed and the recombinant CYP102D1 was functionally active, showing a Soret peak at 450 nm in the reduced CO difference spectrum. FMN/FAD isolated from the reductase domain showed the same fluorescence in thin layer chromatography separation as the authentic standards. Characterization of the substrate specificity of CYP102D1 based on NADPH oxidation rate revealed that it catalysed the oxidation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with very good regioselectivity, similar to other CYP102A families depending on NADPH supply. In particular, CYP102D1 catalysed the rapid oxidation of myristoleic acid with a k(cat)/K(m) value of 453.4 ± 181.5 μM(-1)·min(-1). Homology models of CYP102D1 based on other members of the CYP102A family allowed us to alter substrate specificity to aromatic compounds such as daidzein. Interestingly, replacement of F96V/M246I in the active site increased catalytic activity for daidzein with a k(cat)/K(m) value of 100.9 ± 10.4 μM(-1)·min(-1) (15-fold).
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ABSTRACT: A minimal CYP102A1 mutant library of only 24 variants plus wild type was constructed by combining five hydrophobic amino acids (alanine, valine, phenylalanine, leucine and isoleucine) in two positions. Both positions are located close to the centre of the haem group. The first, position 87, has been shown to mediate substrate specificity and regioselectivity in CYP102A1. The second hotspot, position 328, was predicted to interact with all substrates during oxidation and has previously been identified by systematic analysis of 31 crystal structures and 6300 sequences of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. By systematically altering the size of the side chains, a broad range of binding site shapes was generated. All variants were functionally expressed in E. coli. The library was screened with four terpene substrates geranylacetone, nerylacetone, (4R)-limonene and (+)-valencene. Only three variants showed no activity towards all four terpenes, while eleven variants demonstrated either a strong shift or improved regio- or stereoselectivity during oxidation of at least one substrate as compared to CYP102A1 wild type.ChemBioChem 03/2009; 10(5):853-61. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A unique cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 is strongly induced by phenobarbital (Narhi, L. O., and Fulco, A. J. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 2147-2150) and many other barbiturates (Kim, B.-H., and Fulco, A. J. (1983) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 116, 843-850). This monooxygenase has now been purified to homogeneity from pentobarbital-induced bacteria as a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of 119,000 +/- 5,000 daltons. In the presence of NADPH and O2, it can catalyze the oxygenation of long chain fatty acids without the aid of any other protein. The enzyme has a catalytic center activity of 4,600 nmol of fatty acid oxygenated per nmol of P-450 (the highest activity yet reported for a P-450-dependent monooxygenase) and also functions as a highly active cytochrome c reductase in the presence of NADPH. The purified holoenzyme is a soluble protein containing 40 mol % hydrophobic amino acid residues and 1 mol each of FAD and FMN/mol of heme. It is isolated and purified in the low spin form but is converted to the high spin form in the presence of long chain fatty acids. The enzyme, which catalyzes the omega-2 hydroxylation of saturated fatty acids and the hydroxylation and epoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids has its highest affinity (Km = 2 +/- 1 microM) for the C15 and C16 chain lengths.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/1986; 261(16):7160-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CYP102s represent a family of natural self-sufficient fusions of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome P450 reductase found in some bacteria. One member of this family, named CYP102A1 or more traditionally P450BM-3, has been widely studied as a model of human P450 cytochromes. Remarkable detail of P450 structure and function has been revealed using this highly efficient enzyme. The recent rapid expansion of microbial genome sequences has revealed many relatives of CYP102A1, but to date only two from Bacillus subtilis have been characterized. We report here the cloning and expression of CYP102A5, a new member of this family that is very closely related to CYP102A4 from Bacillus anthracis. Characterization of the substrate specificity of CYP102A5 shows that it, like the other CYP102s, will metabolize saturated and unsaturated fatty acids as well as N-acylamino acids. CYP102A5 catalyzes very fast substrate oxidation, showing one of the highest turnover rates for any P450 monooxygenase studied so far. It does so with more specificity than other CYP102s, yielding primarily omega-1 and omega-2 hydroxylated products. Measurement of the rate of electron transfer through the reductase domain reveals that it is significantly faster in CYP102A5 than in CYP102A1, providing a likely explanation for the increased monooxygenation rate. The availability of this new, very fast fusion P450 will provide a great tool for comparative structure-function studies between CYP102A5 and the other characterized CYP102s.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 01/2008; 468(1):32-43. · 3.37 Impact Factor