O(3P) + CO2 collisions at hyperthermal energies: dynamics of nonreactive scattering, oxygen isotope exchange, and oxygen-atom abstraction.
ABSTRACT The dynamics of O((3)P) + CO(2) collisions at hyperthermal energies were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Crossed-molecular-beams experiments at <E(coll)> = 98.8 kcal mol(-1) were performed with isotopically labeled (12)C(18)O(2) to distinguish products of nonreactive scattering from those of reactive scattering. The following product channels were observed: elastic and inelastic scattering ((16)O((3)P) + (12)C(18)O(2)), isotope exchange ((18)O + (16)O(12)C(18)O), and oxygen-atom abstraction ((18)O(16)O + (12)C(18)O). Stationary points on the two lowest triplet potential energy surfaces of the O((3)P) + CO(2) system were characterized at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory and by means of W4 theory, which represents an approximation to the relativistic basis set limit, full-configuration-interaction (FCI) energy. The calculations predict a planar CO(3)(C(2v), (3)A'') intermediate that lies 16.3 kcal mol(-1) (W4 FCI excluding zero point energy) above reactants and is approached by a C(2v) transition state with energy 24.08 kcal mol(-1). Quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations with collision energies in the range 23-150 kcal mol(-1) were performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d) and BMK/6-311G(d) levels. Both reactive channels observed in the experiment were predicted by these calculations. In the isotope exchange reaction, the experimental center-of-mass (c.m.) angular distribution, T(θ(c.m.)), of the (16)O(12)C(18)O products peaked along the initial CO(2) direction (backward relative to the direction of the reagent O atoms), with a smaller isotropic component. The product translational energy distribution, P(E(T)), had a relatively low average of <E(T)> = 35 kcal mol(-1), indicating that the (16)O(12)C(18)O products were formed with substantial internal energy. The QCT calculations give c.m. P(E(T)) and T(θ(c.m.)) distributions and a relative product yield that agree qualitatively with the experimental results, and the trajectories indicate that exchange occurs through a short-lived CO(3)* intermediate. A low yield for the abstraction reaction was seen in both the experiment and the theory. Experimentally, a fast and weak (16)O(18)O product signal from an abstraction reaction was observed, which could only be detected in the forward direction. A small number of QCT trajectories leading to abstraction were observed to occur primarily via a transient CO(3) intermediate, albeit only at high collision energies (149 kcal mol(-1)). The oxygen isotope exchange mechanism for CO(2) in collisions with ground state O atoms is a newly discovered pathway through which oxygen isotopes may be cycled in the upper atmosphere, where O((3)P) atoms with hyperthermal translational energies can be generated by photodissociation of O(3) and O(2).