"Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the OPG/RANKL system genes in primary hyperparathyroidism and their relationship with bone mineral density"

Endocrinology Service, University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla University of Cantabria-IFIMAV, Avda, de Valdecilla, Santander 39008, SPAIN.
BMC Medical Genetics (Impact Factor: 2.08). 12/2011; 12(1):168. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-12-168
Source: PubMed


Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) affects mainly cortical bone. It is thought that parathyroid hormone (PTH) indirectly regulates the activity of osteoclasts by means of the osteoprotegerin/ligand of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ (OPG/RANKL) system. Several studies have confirmed that OPG (osteoprotegerin) and RANKL (ligand of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ) loci are determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) in the general population. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between fractures and BMD and the rs3102735 (163 A/G), rs3134070 (245 T/G) and rs2073618 (1181 G/C) SNPs of the OPG and the rs2277438 SNP of the RANKL, in patients with sporadic PHPT.
We enrolled 298 Caucasian patients with PHPT and 328 healthy volunteers in a cross-sectional study. We analyzed anthropometric data, history of fractures or renal lithiasis, biochemical determinants including markers for bone remodelling, BMD measurements in the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck and distal radius, and genotyping for the SNPs to be studied.
Regarding the age of diagnosis, BMI, menopause status, frequency of fractures or renal lithiasis, we found no differences between genotypes in any of the SNPs studied in the PHPT group. Significant lower BMD in the distal radius with similar PTH levels was found in the minor allele homozygotes (GG) compared to heterozygotes and major allele homozygotes in both OPG rs3102735 (163 A/G) and OPG rs3134070 (245 T/G) SNPs in those with PHPT compared to control subjects. We found no differences between genotypes of the OPG rs2073618 (1181 G/C) SNP with regard to BMD in the PHPT subjects. In the evaluation of rs2277438 SNP of the RANKL in PHPT patients, we found a non significant trend towards lower BMD in the 1/3 distal radius and at total hip in the minor allele homocygotes (GG) genotype group versus heterocygotes and major allele homocygotes (AA).
Our study provides the first evaluation of the relationship between SNPs of the OPG/RANK system and sporadic PHPT. Subjects with PHPT and minor homocygote genotype (GG) for the OPG rs3102735 (163 A/G) and OPG rs3134070 (245 T/G) SNPs have lower BMD in the distal radius, and this association does not appear to be mediated by differences in PTH serum levels.

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    • "In detail, concerning the rs3102735 SNP the G allele was more common among fracture patients [28,34] and patients with lower BMD at the distal radius [30]. Furthermore, there is an association within a subgroup of postmenopausal patients carrying the minor allele and a lower calcaneal velocity of sound [36]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), its ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been reported to play a role in the pathophysiological bone turnover and in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Based on this we investigated the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within RANK, RANKL and OPG and their possible association to breast cancer risk. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from Caucasian participants consisting of 307 female breast cancer patients and 396 gender-matched healthy controls. We studied seven SNPs in the genes of OPG (rs3102735, rs2073618), RANK (rs1805034, rs35211496) and RANKL (rs9533156, rs2277438, rs1054016) using TaqMan genotyping assays. Statistical analyses were performed using the χ2-tests for 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 tables. Results The allelic frequencies (OR: 1.508 CI: 1.127-2.018, p=0.006) and the genotype distribution (p=0.019) of the OPG SNP rs3102735 differed significantly between breast cancer patients and healthy controls. The minor allele C and the corresponding homo- and heterozygous genotypes are more common in breast cancer patients (minor allele C: 18.4% vs. 13.0%; genotype CC: 3.3% vs. 1.3%; genotype CT: 30.3% vs. 23.5%). No significantly changed risk was detected in the other investigated SNPs. Additional analysis showed significant differences when comparing patients with invasive vs. non-invasive tumors (OPG rs2073618) as well as in terms of tumor localization (RANK rs35211496) and body mass index (RANKL rs9533156 and rs1054016). Conclusions This is the first study reporting a significant association of the SNP rs3102735 (OPG) with the susceptibility to develop breast cancer in the Caucasian population.
    BMC Cancer 01/2013; 13(1):40. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-40 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Another example is osteoprotegerin (OPG), which acts as a competitive receptor of receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), inhibiting osteoclast activity. SNP A 163 G in the OPG gene promoter has been related with low bone density and fracture risk (Hsu et al., 2006; Jorgensen et al., 2004; Piedra et al., 2011). Finally, the SNP G?T located in the binding site of the transcription factor SpI at the COL1A1 gene that encodes the a-1 chain of collagen Type 1, the major protein of bone, has been consistently associated with low bone mass (Grant et al., 1996; Jin et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Some Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of several candidate genes have been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. As the genetic variability of such SNPs in Hispanic and Native American populations is scarce, we analyzed the three SNPs that have been related with bone mass disorders (Sp1, A163G, and BsmI) located in the genes of Type I Collagen (COL1A1), Osteoprotegerin (OPG), and Vitamin D receptor (VDR) in Mexican Mestizos (people resulting from post-Columbian admixture) and five Amerindian populations. We genotyped these three SNPs by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in 523 individuals from five Mexican Amerindian groups (Nahua, Maya, Purépecha, Tarahumara, and Huichol) and 227 western Mestizos (Jalisco state). The modal allele was the same in all the six populations for Sp1-COL1A1 (S > 77%), A163G-OPG (A > 80%), and BsmI-VDR (b > 62%). Genotype distribution was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all SNPs/populations, excepting Sp1-COL1A1 in the Purépecha group and BsmI-VDR in Mestizo. In terms of the presumably Sp1-COL1A1 risk allele to low BMD (allele "s"), the Purépecha group showed the highest allele (23%) and homozygous (14.5%) frequencies. If the role of this allele as a genetic predisposing factor to low BMD were confirmed, this would mean increased susceptibility of Purépechas with regard to Europeans (14.5 vs. 6.8%). This finding presumably could influence the genetic susceptibility to low BMD in Purépechas. For the SNPs, BsmI-VDR and A163G-OPG, relative homogeneity was observed among the Mexican populations analyzed here.
    American Journal of Human Biology 07/2012; 24(4):569-72. DOI:10.1002/ajhb.22262 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A narrow serum calcium level which is essential for many metabolic processes is regulated by the calcium-sensing receptor which regulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) release. Primary hyperparathyroidism is supposed to be the third most common endocrine disorder. Besides nephrolithiasis and an increased incidence of cardiovascular symptoms it is associated with bone loss and an increased risk of fracture. Several different classical bone turnover markers have been shown to be increased. However, there are many uncertainties in pathophysiology of PHPT. Hardly any conclusive data exist on the RANK (receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB)/RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand)/OPG (osteoprotegerin) system, cathepsin K, sclerostin, FGF-23 (Fibroblast growth factor-23), Klotho, and DKK 1 (Dickkopf 1) in patients suffering from PHPT.
    Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 07/2012; 163(17). DOI:10.1007/s10354-012-0125-9
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