Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and adipocyte differentiation; however, the roles of IL-17 in glucose metabolism remain to be elucidated. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers improve insulin resistance at least in part because of the amelioration of inflammation. Therefore, we examined the possible roles of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus using a mouse model, KK-Ay, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated insulin resistance. KK-Ay mice were administered control-IgG(2A) or anti-IL-17 antibody 5 times at a dose of 100 μg every second day by IP injection. KK-Ay mice were administered telmisartan for 2 weeks. C57BL/6J mice treated with angiotensin II infusion for 2 weeks were administered telmisartan or hydralazine. Insulin resistance was evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, and uptake of 2-[(3)H]deoxy-d-glucose in peripheral tissues. Serum IL-17 concentration in KK-Ay mice was significantly higher than that in C57BL/6J mice. Treatment of KK-Ay mice with anti-IL-17 antibody significantly increased 2-[(3)H]deoxy-d-glucose uptake in skeletal muscle but not in white adipose tissue and attenuated the increase in blood glucose level after a glucose load. Blockade of IL-17 enhanced the expression of adipocyte differentiation markers and adiponectin. Treatment with telmisartan decreased serum IL-17 concentration in KK-Ay and ameliorated angiotensin II-induced insulin resistance with a decrease in serum IL-17 level in C57BL/6J. In conclusion, IL-17 could play an important role in the pathogenesis of angiotensin II type 1 receptor-induced insulin resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor stimulation in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is still unclear. Therefore we examined the possibility that direct AT(2) receptor stimulation by compound 21 (C21) might contribute to possible insulin-sensitizing/anti-diabetic effects in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with PPARγ activation, mainly focusing on adipose tissue.
T2DM mice, KK-Ay, were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of C21 and/or a PPARγ antagonist, GW9662 in drinking water for 2 weeks. Insulin resistance was evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, and uptake of 2-[(3)H] deoxy-D-glucose in white adipose tissue. Morphological changes of adipose tissues as well as adipocyte differentiation and inflammatory response were examined.
Treatment with C21 ameliorated insulin resistance in KK-Ay mice without influencing blood pressure, at least partially through effects on the PPARγ pathway. C21 treatment increased serum adiponectin concentration and decreased TNF-α concentration; however, these effects were attenuated by PPARγ blockade by co-treatment with GW9662. Moreover, we observed that administration of C21 enhanced adipocyte differentiation and PPARγ DNA-binding activity, with a decrease in inflammation in white adipose tissue, whereas these effects of C21 were attenuated by co-treatment with GW9662. We also observed that administration of C21 restored β cell damage in diabetic pancreatic tissue.
The present study demonstrated that direct AT(2) receptor stimulation by C21 accompanied with PPARγ activation ameliorated insulin resistance in T2DM mice, at least partially due to improvement of adipocyte dysfunction and protection of pancreatic β cells.
PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e48387. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0048387 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We explored the effect of therapeutic glucoregulation on the blood levels of proinflammatory T helper (Th)17 cytokines interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23, and Th1 cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-12 in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients. The investigated group consisted of 23 subjects (17 men and 6 women, age 26-64). The cytokine serum levels, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as a marker of glucoregulation, homeostasis model assessment index as a measure of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and body mass index (BMI) were determined before and after 12 weeks of therapy consisting of standard lifestyle modification and metformin (1000mg b.i.d.). The levels of Th17 and Th1 cytokines before treatment did not correlate with age, BMI or HOMA-IR. The patients with poor glucoregulation (HbA1c>7%, n=12), compared to those with good glucoregulation (HbA1c≤7%, n=11), had higher serum levels of Th17 and Th1 cytokines, but only the differences in IL-17 (median 21.2pg/ml vs. 4.8pg/ml) and IFN-γ 5 (0.6pg/ml vs. 27.7pg/ml) reached statistical significance (p=0.003 and p=0.012, respectively). The reduction of HbA1c values (from 8.6 to 5.9%, p=0.000) observed upon treatment in patients with poor glucoregulation was associated with a significant decrease in the concentration of IL-17 (from 21.2 to 12.9pg/ml, p=0.020), but not IFN-γ (50.6 vs. 52.3, p=0.349). These data indicate that therapeutic improvement of glucoregulation might contribute to a reduction of IL-17 levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients.
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