Mutations of DNAH11 in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia with normal ciliary ultrastructure
ABSTRACT Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive, genetically heterogeneous disorder characterised by oto-sino-pulmonary disease and situs abnormalities (Kartagener syndrome) due to abnormal structure and/or function of cilia. Most patients currently recognised to have PCD have ultrastructural defects of cilia; however, some patients have clinical manifestations of PCD and low levels of nasal nitric oxide, but normal ultrastructure, including a few patients with biallelic mutations in dynein axonemal heavy chain 11 (DNAH11).
To test further for mutant DNAH11 as a cause of PCD, DNAH11 was sequenced in patients with a PCD clinical phenotype, but no known genetic aetiology.
82 exons and intron/exon junctions in DNAH11 were sequenced in 163 unrelated patients with a clinical phenotype of PCD, including those with normal ciliary ultrastructure (n=58), defects in outer and/or inner dynein arms (n=76), radial spoke/central pair defects (n=6), and 23 without definitive ultrastructural results, but who had situs inversus (n=17), or bronchiectasis and/or low nasal nitric oxide (n=6). Additionally, DNAH11 was sequenced in 13 subjects with isolated situs abnormalities to see if mutant DNAH11 could cause situs defects without respiratory disease.
Of the 58 unrelated patients with PCD with normal ultrastructure, 13 (22%) had two (biallelic) mutations in DNAH11; and two patients without ultrastructural analysis had biallelic mutations. All mutations were novel and private. None of the patients with dynein arm or radial spoke/central pair defects, or isolated situs abnormalities, had mutations in DNAH11. Of the 35 identified mutant alleles, 24 (69%) were nonsense, insertion/deletion or loss-of-function splice-site mutations.
Mutations in DNAH11 are a common cause of PCD in patients without ciliary ultrastructural defects; thus, genetic analysis can be used to ascertain the diagnosis of PCD in this challenging group of patients.
- Thorax 01/2012; 67(5):377-8. DOI:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2011-201320 · 8.56 Impact Factor
- Thorax 02/2012; 67(5):464; author reply 464. DOI:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2012-201609 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by specific primary structural and/or functional abnormalities of the motile cilia, in contrast with the transitory abnormalities seen in secondary ciliary dyskinesia. Disease-causing mutations in at least 16 genes have already been identified. The true incidence of PCD may be higher than currently reported, because the diagnosis is challenging and often missed. For the confirmation of PCD, both ciliary motility as well as ciliary ultrastructure must be evaluated. An early and adequate diagnosis and therapy can theoretically prevent bronchiectasis. Measurement of nasal nitric oxide has some value as a screening test but cannot be performed in young children. In the respiratory tract epithelium, impaired mucociliary clearance leads to chronic and/or recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections. In up to 75 % of the patients, respiratory manifestations start in the newborn period, although the diagnosis is often missed at that time. During embryogenesis, nodal cilia, which are motile cilia, determine the correct lateralization of the organs. Dysfunction of these cilia leads to random lateralization and thus situs inversus in approximately 50 % of the patients with PCD. The tail of a spermatozoon has a structure similar to that of a motile cilium. Consequently, male infertility due to immotile spermatozoa is often part of the characteristics of PCD. Given the heterogeneity and the rarity of the disorder, therapy is not evidence-based. Many treatment schedules are proposed in analogy with the treatment for cystic fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Respiratory infections, situs inversus and male infertility are typical manifestations of PCD, a rare autosomal recessive disorder.European Journal of Pediatrics 07/2012; 172(2). DOI:10.1007/s00431-012-1785-6 · 1.98 Impact Factor