Isolation and characterization of homodimeric type-I reaction center complex from Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum, an aerobic chlorophototroph.
ABSTRACT The recently discovered thermophilic acidobacterium Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum is the first aerobic chlorophototroph that has a type-I, homodimeric reaction center (RC). This organism and its type-I RCs were initially detected by the occurrence of pscA gene sequences, which encode the core subunit of the RC complex, in metagenomic sequence data derived from hot spring microbial mats. Here, we report the isolation and initial biochemical characterization of the type-I RC from Ca. C. thermophilum. After removal of chlorosomes, crude membranes were solubilized with 0.1% (w/v) n-dodecyl β-D-maltoside, and the RC complex was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The RC complex comprised only two polypeptides: the reaction center core protein PscA and a 22-kDa carotenoid-binding protein denoted CbpC. The absorption spectrum showed a large, broad absorbance band centered at ∼483 nm from carotenoids as well as smaller Q(y) absorption bands at 672 and 812 nm from chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll a, respectively. The light-induced difference spectra of whole cells, membranes, and the isolated RC showed maximal bleaching at 840 nm, which is attributed to the special pair and which we denote as P840. Making it unique among homodimeric type-I RCs, the isolated RC was photoactive in the presence of oxygen. Analyses by optical spectroscopy, chromatography, and mass spectrometry revealed that the RC complex contained 10.3 bacteriochlorophyll a(P), 6.4 chlorophyll a(PD), and 1.6 Zn-bacteriochlorophyll a(P)' molecules per P840 (12.8:8.0:2.0). The possible functions of the Zn-bacteriochlorophyll a(P)' molecules and the carotenoid-binding protein are discussed.
Article: A BchD (magnesium chelatase) mutant of rhodobacter sphaeroides synthesizes zinc bacteriochlorophyll through novel zinc-containing intermediates.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Heme and bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl) biosyntheses share the same pathway to protoporphyrin IX, which then branches as follows. Fe(2+) chelation into the macrocycle by ferrochelatase results in heme formation, and Mg(2+) addition by Mg-chelatase commits the porphyrin to BChl synthesis. It was recently discovered that a bchD (Mg-chelatase) mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides produces an alternative BChl in which Mg(2+) is substituted by Zn(2+). Zn-BChl has been found in only one other organism before, the acidophilic Acidiphilium rubrum. Our objectives in this work on the bchD mutant were to 1) elucidate the Zn-BChl biosynthetic pathway in this organism and 2) understand causes for the low amounts of Zn-BChl produced. The bchD mutant was found to contain a Zn-protoporphyrin IX pool, analogous to the Mg-protoporphyrin IX pool found in the wild type strain. Inhibition of ferrochelatase with N-methylprotoporphyrin IX caused Zn-protoporphyrin IX and Zn-BChl levels to decline by 80-90% in the bchD mutant, whereas in the wild type strain, Mg-protoporphyrin IX and Mg-BChl levels increased by 170-240%. Two early metabolites of the Zn-BChl pathway were isolated from the bchD mutant and identified as Zn-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester and divinyl-Zn-protochlorophyllide. Our data support a model in which ferrochelatase synthesizes Zn-protoporphyrin IX, and this metabolite is acted on by enzymes of the BChl pathway to produce Zn-BChl. Finally, the low amounts of Zn-BChl in the bchD mutant may be due, at least in part, to a bottleneck upstream of the step where divinyl-Zn-protochlorophyllide is converted to monovinyl-Zn-protochlorophyllide.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2011; 286(23):20313-22. · 4.77 Impact Factor