Allergic asthma is characterized by infiltration of eosinophils, elevated Th2 cytokine levels, airway hyperresponsiveness, and IgE. In addition to eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils, a variety of cytokines are also involved in the development of allergic asthma. The pivotal role of eosinophils in the progression of the disease has been a subject of controversy. To determine the role of eosinophils in the progression of airway inflammation, we sensitized and challenged BALB/c wild-type (WT) mice and eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA mice with ovalbumin (OVA) and analyzed different aspects of inflammation. We observed increased eosinophil levels and a Th2-dominant response in OVA-challenged WT mice. In contrast, eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA mice displayed an increased proportion of mast cells and a Th17-biased response following OVA inhalation. Notably, the levels of IL-33, an important cytokine responsible for Th2 immune deviation, were not different between WT and eosinophil-deficient mice. We also demonstrated that mast cells induced Th17-differentiation via IL-33/ST2 stimulation in vitro. These results indicate that eosinophils are not essential for the development of allergic asthma and that mast cells can skew the immune reaction predominantly toward Th17 responses via IL-33 stimulation.
"Th17 cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells, as well as their cytokines, are correlated with the development of asthma. We previously reported that IL-33 induces Th17-mediated airway inflammation via mast cells in ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged mice.6 Asthma is thought to develop due to an imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells.7,8 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways associated with structural changes and airway remodeling. Interleukin (IL)-9 has pleiotropic effects on both inflammatory cells and airway structural cells, which are involved in asthma pathogenesis. We evaluated the effects of IL-9 blockade on chronic airway inflammation.
Acute airway inflammation was induced in Balb/c mice using aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA), whereas chronic asthma was induced by OVA exposure for 5 weeks with anti-IL-9 or isotype-matched antibody (Ab) treatment during the OVA challenge. Inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted and lung tissues were stained to detect cellular infiltration, mucus deposition, and collagen accumulation. The levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-17, and immunoglobulin E (IgE) in BALF were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, and profiles of inflammatory cells and subsets of T helper (Th) cells were analyzed using flow cytometry.
IL-9, IL-17, and IFN-γ levels were significantly increased in the chronic group compared to the acute asthma group. However, the number of IL-9-positive cells was not affected, with a decrease in Th17 cells in OVA-challenged caspase-1 knockout mice. Numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils, B cells, mast cells, and Th17 cells decreased after administration of anti-IL-9 Ab. Total IgE, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-17 levels were also lower in the anti-IL-9 group.
Our results suggest that anti-IL-9 Ab treatment inhibits pulmonary infiltration of inflammatory cells and cytokine production, especially IL-17. These results provide a basis for the use of an anti-IL-9 Ab to combat IL-17-mediated airway inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the main regulator of bronchomotor tone. Extensive studies show that in addition to their physical property, human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells can participate in inflammatory processes modulating the initiation, perpetuation, amplification, and perhaps resolution of airway inflammation. Upon stimulation or interaction with immune cells, ASM cells produce and secrete a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, cell adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. These released mediators can, in turn, contribute to the inflammatory state, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway remodeling present in asthma. As our knowledge of ASM myocyte biology improves, novel bioactive factors are emerging as potentially important regulators of inflammation. This review provides an overview of our understanding of some of these molecules, identifies rising questions, and proposes future studies to better define their role in ASM cell modulation of inflammation and immunity in the lung and respiratory diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensitization to fungi, such as the mold Aspergillus fumigatus, is increasingly becoming linked with asthma severity. We have previously shown that lung responses generated via the β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 are required for lung defense during acute, invasive A. fumigatus infection. Unexpectedly, in an allergic model of chronic lung exposure to live A. fumigatus conidia, β-glucan recognition via Dectin-1 led to the induction of multiple proallergic (Muc5ac, Clca3, CCL17, CCL22, and IL-33) and proinflammatory (IL-1β and CXCL1) mediators that compromised lung function. Attenuated proallergic and proinflammatory responses in the absence of Dectin-1 were not associated with changes in Ido (IDO), Il12p35/Ebi3 (IL-35), IL-10, or TGF-β levels. Assessment of Th responses demonstrated that purified lung CD4(+) T cells produced IL-4, IL-13, IFN-γ, and IL-17A, but not IL-22, in a Dectin-1-dependent manner. In contrast, we observed robust, Dectin-1-dependent IL-22 production by unfractionated lung digest cells. Intriguingly, the absence of IL-22 alone mimicked the attenuated proallergic and proinflammatory responses observed in the absence of Dectin-1, suggesting that Dectin-1-mediated IL-22 production potentiated responses that led to decrements in lung function. To this end, neutralization of IL-22 improved lung function in normal mice. Collectively, these results indicate that the β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 contributes to lung inflammation and immunopathology associated with persistent fungal exposure via the production of IL-22.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2012; 189(7):3653-60. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1201797 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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