Use and usefulness of adrenal core biopsies without FNA or on-site evaluation of adequacy: a study of 204 cases for a 12-year period.
ABSTRACT While several studies have assessed the efficacy of adrenal fine-needle aspiration, there are few data regarding adrenal tissue core biopsies. We performed a retrospective study, for a 12-year period, of 204 percutaneous adrenal core biopsy specimens. A core was the only specimen obtained, and on-site evaluation was not used. About half of the cases (104/204) were diagnosed as metastatic carcinoma, with lung as the most common origin (78/204). A specificity and sensitivity of 100% for benign vs malignant was calculated, with a specificity of 88% and sensitivity of 86% for specific diagnoses. Diagnostic and sampling errors were identified. False-negatives were limited to biopsies using 20-gauge needles. Cases with a clinical history provided had specific diagnoses made at a slightly higher frequency compared with cases without an available history. Immunohistochemical workup was performed in more than half of the cases; specific diagnoses were made more frequently than in cases without immunostains.
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ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose: Positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is used as first-line staging for patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our purpose was to review the accuracy of FDG-PET/CT to predict adrenal gland metastasis, explain the causes for false positive PET, and provide a diagnostic algorithm. Patients and Methods: Two patients with incidentally discovered lung masses were found to have hypermetabolic adrenal activity by FDG-PET/CT with maximal standard uptake value (SUV) of 4.5 and 6.5. A MEDLINE search was performed on the topic of FDG-PET/CT, adrenal gland metastasis, and NSCLC. Literature was reviewed with regard to diagnosis, accuracy, outcomes, and alternative imaging or diagnostic strategies. Results: Both patients underwent transabdominal laparoscopic adrenalectomy and were found to have nodular hyperplasia without evidence of adrenal tumor. A total of 7 articles containing 366 patients were identified as containing pertinent oncologic information for NSCLC patients with adrenal lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT for distant metastasis was 94% and 85% respectively but only 12% (44/366) of these patients had histologically confirmed adrenal diagnoses. Based on this, a diagnostic algorithm was created to aid in decision-making. Conclusions: Although PET/CT has high sensitivity and specificity for adrenal metastasis in the setting of NSCLC, adrenal biopsy or other secondary imaging should be considered to confirm the finding. Adrenalectomy in lieu of biopsy may have both diagnostic and therapeutic benefit in cases where the adrenal mass is ≥10 mm in size with high PET maximum SUV (≥3.1) and SUV ratios (> 2.5), where washout CT or chemical shift MRI is positive, or where percutaneous biopsy is deemed too difficult or unsafe.Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 08/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor