Predictors of acute chemotherapy-associated toxicity in patients with Ewing sarcoma.
ABSTRACT Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a malignant tumor of bone and soft tissue of children and young adults. Patients with ES are treated with intensive chemotherapy regimens. We describe predictors of acute chemotherapy-associated toxicity in this population.
In this retrospective cohort study, records of ES patients treated at two academic medical centers between 1980 and 2010 were reviewed. Grade 3 and 4 non-hematologic chemotherapy-associated toxicities during frontline therapy were recorded for each patient, along with potential clinical and demographic predictors of toxicity. Bivariate analyses were performed using the Fisher exact test. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression.
The cohort included 142 patients with ES and toxicity data. In bivariate analyses, age <12 years at diagnosis, Latino ethnicity, low family income, and treatment on a clinical trial were associated with higher incidence of toxicity (P < 0.01). Tumor size, site, stage, mode of local control, body mass index, overall chemotherapy exposure and dose-intensity were not associated with toxicity. In multivariate analysis, low income (odds ratio (OR) 4.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-13.1), clinical trial enrollment (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.2-10.9), pelvic tumor site (OR 3.88, 95% CI 1.17-12.88), and age <12 years (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.0-7.5) were independent predictors of toxicity.
ES patients who are younger, of Latino ethnicity, have pelvic tumors or low income have higher rates of toxicity that may require increased supportive care. Treatment on a clinical trial was also associated with higher rates of toxicity, though this finding may reflect better reporting in these patients.
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ABSTRACT: This is a report of late effects in childhood cancer survivors seen in the follow-up clinic of a single institution. There were 324 acute leukemia survivors in the database of the Long Term Follow Up Clinic of Children's National Medical Center from January 1, 1997, through June 30, 2005. Of the 324 acute leukemia survivors, 228 were white, 48 black, 20 Hispanic, and 12 other. Their follow-up time was 0 to 25 years (mean 5.3 years). One or more adverse events occurred in 74.1% of the 324 survivors. Defective physical growth was most commonly reported, followed by disturbed neurocognitive function, emotional difficulties, cardiac abnormalities, hypertension, osteoporosis/osteopenia, fractures, and second neoplasms. More black and Hispanic children had acute myeloid leukemia, relapses, cardiac problems, and hypertension than white and other subjects. Childhood cancer survivors require lifelong monitoring, with prompt identification and treatment of adverse late effects.Clinical Pediatrics 04/2009; 48(6):601-8. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The combination of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy has made acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) a highly curable leukemia. However, several complications are reported with this treatment the most serious and life threatening being Retinoic Acid Syndrome (RAS). We aimed at identifying factors that could predict complications caused by ATRA during induction treatment of APL. Forty-two patients with confirmed APL (by t(15;17) and/or PML/RARA) treated at our institution (University hospital of Tunis) between January 1998 and June 2006 using two consecutive protocols: European APL93 trial (24 patients) until February 2004 and Spanish PETHEMA LPA99 trial (18 patients) more recently. Induction regimen consisted of ATRA 45 mg/m(2)/d until CR combined to DNR 60 mg/m(2)/d x 3+Cytarabine 200 mg/m(2)/d x 7 (APL93) and Idarubicin 12 mg/m(2) d2, 4, 6, 8 (LPA99). Prednisone (0.5 mg/kg d1-d15) was added if WBC >10 x 10(9)/L to prevent RAS in LPA 99. Median age was 36 yr (7-64 yr), M/F=16/26 (0.61), median WBC was 2.4 x 10(9)/L (range 0.6-100 x 10(9)/L). WBC >10 x 10(9)/L was noted in 14 patients (33%). Additional cytogenetic abnormalities were seen in 12/42 (28%). Median body mass index (BMI=weight/height(2):N 20-25) was 24 kg/m(2) (range 16-40 kg/m(2)), BMI >30 was noted in nine patients (8F and 1M). Thirty-three patients achieved CR (78.57%):18/24 (75%) in APL93 versus 15/18 (83%) in LPA99. Nine patients (21.42%) had early death. Causes of early death were: RAS (6) and CNS hemorrhage (3). Complications due to ATRA were: RAS (10), Scrotal ulcerations (3), Sweet syndrome (2), Perineal ulcerations (1), and Pseudotumor cerebri (1). Prognostic factors for complications of ATRA (Fisher exact test) were: BMI >35 (p=0.055), induction treatment without cytarabine (LPA99 trial) (p=0.047), whereas age (p=0.74), gender (p=0.51), initial WBC (p=0.47), and additional cytogenetic abnormalities (p=0.83) were not predictive. Retinoic Acid Syndrome was more reported in patients with initial WBC >10 x 10(9)/L (p=0.08). We found high BMI (>35) in female and treatment without Cytarabine to increase the risk of developing complications with ATRA.Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 07/2008; 13(3):142-6. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) is a group of malignant tumors of soft tissue and bone sharing a chromosomal translocation affecting the EWS locus. The Intergroup INT-0091 demonstrated the superiority of a regimen of vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (VDC), and dactinomycin alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide (IE) over VDC for patients with nonmetastatic ESFT of bone. The goal of this study was to determine whether a dose-intensified regimen of VDC alternating with IE would further improve the outcome for patients with nonmetastatic ESFT of bone or soft tissue. Patients with previously untreated, nonmetastatic ESFT of bone or soft tissue were eligible. They were randomly assigned to receive standard doses of VDC/IE over 48 weeks or a dose-intensified regimen of VDC/IE over 30 weeks. Four hundred seventy-eight patients met eligibility requirements: 231 patients received the standard regimen; 247 patients received the intensified regimen. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival rates for all eligible patients were 71.1% (95% CI, 67.7% to 75.0%) and 78.6% (95% CI, 74.6% to 82.1%), respectively. There was no significant difference (P = .57) in EFS between patients treated with the standard (5-year EFS, 72.1%; 95% CI, 65.8% to 77.5%) or intensified regimen (5-year EFS, 70.1%; 63.9% to 75%). Patients with soft tissue tumors accounted for 20% of the study population; there was no difference in outcome between patients with soft tissue and bone primary sites. Dose escalation of alkylating agents as tested in this trial did not improve the outcome for patients with nonmetastatic ESFT of bone or soft tissue.Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2009; 27(15):2536-41. · 18.04 Impact Factor