Chronic health conditions are common among long-term childhood cancer survivors, but hospitalization rates have not been reported. The objective of this study was to determine overall and cause-specific hospitalization rates among survivors of childhood cancer and compare rates to the U.S. population.
The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) is a retrospective cohort of 5+ year survivors of childhood malignancies treated at 26 participating centers. Self-reported hospitalizations from 10,366 survivors (diagnosed 1970-1986) were compared to U.S. population rates using age- and sex-stratified standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Reasons for hospitalization were evaluated and associations between demographic, cancer and treatment-related risk factors with hospitalization were investigated.
Survivors were, on average, 20.9 years from cancer diagnosis (SD: 4.6, range: 13-32) and 28.6 years of age (SD: 7.7, range: 13-51). Survivor hospitalization rates were 1.6 times the U.S. population (95% CI: 1.6; 1.7). Increased hospitalization rates were noted irrespective of gender, age at follow-up and cancer diagnosis, with highest SIRs noted among male (SIR = 2.6, 95% CI: 2.2; 3.0) and female (SIR = 2.7, 95% CI: 2.4; 3.1) survivors aged 45-54. Female gender, an existing chronic health condition and/or a second neoplasm, and prior treatment with radiation were associated with an increased risk of non-obstetrical hospitalization.
Survivors of childhood cancer demonstrate substantially higher hospitalization rates. Additional research is needed to further quantify the healthcare utilization and economic impact of treatment-related complications as this population ages.
"Unfortunately, information on smoking was not available in the current study. We also found that survivors did not have hospital contacts to a greater extent for mental disorders, injuries or poisoning than controls, which is in contrast to previously published results [15,16]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Previous studies have indicated that survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have an increased morbidity measured in terms of health care utilization. However, earlier studies have several potentially important limitations. To overcome some of these, we investigated hospital contact rates, and predictors thereof, among 5-year survivors of ALL in a population-based setting, and compared them to a control cohort regarding outcome measures from a comprehensive nation-wide health register.
All individuals diagnosed with ALL before the age of 18 in Southern Sweden during 1970–1999 and alive January 2007 (n = 213; male = 107) were identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Each subject was matched to fifty controls, identified in the Swedish Population Register. All study subjects were linked to the National Hospital Register and detailed information was obtained on all hospital contacts (hospital admissions and outpatients visits) starting five years after cancer diagnosis, and the corresponding date for the controls, until 2009.
The median follow-up among the 5-year survivors of ALL was 16 years (range 5–33), accruing a total of 3,527 person-years. Of the 213 5-year survivors, 105 (49.3%) had at least one hospital contact compared to 3,634 (34.1%) of the controls (p < 0.001). Survivors had more hospital contacts (3 [1–6] vs. 2 [1–4] contacts, p < 0.001) and more total days in hospital (6 [2–18] vs. 3 [1–7] days, p < 0.001) than the controls during the study period. Logistic regression analysis showed that survivors treated with cranial irradiation and/or total body irradiation (45% and 7%, respectively) had an increased risk of at least one hospital contact (OR 2.3, 95%CI; 1.5–3.6 and OR 11.0, 95%CI; 3.2–50.7, respectively), while there was no significant difference between the non-irradiated survivors and controls.
We show that irradiated survivors of childhood ALL have an increased morbidity measured in terms of hospital contacts, in comparison to non-irradiated survivors and controls, while non-irradiated survivors have not. These findings are encouraging regarding the future morbidity of children currently treated for ALL, as radiotherapy is necessary only for a minority of these.
BMC Cancer 06/2014; 14(1):419. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-419 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"However, available data show that up to 40% of these children suffer from serious late complications, including heart failure, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, growth impairment, hormonal disorders, and secondary cancers . Late complications not only seriously impair the patients' quality of life and cause higher rates of hospitalization, but in 15% of cases, they become the direct cause of the patient's death  . Therefore current studies focus on the problems of early diagnosis in the asymptomatic period of the disease, which can result in an order of prophylactic or therapeutic procedures to prevent the progression of late complications. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel markers of nephrotoxicity, including kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), interleukin 18 (IL-18), and beta-2 microglobulin, were used in the detection of acute renal injury. The aim of the study was to establish the frequency of postchemotherapy chronic kidney dysfunction in children and to assess the efficacy of IL-18, KIM-1, and beta-2 microglobulin in the detection of chronic nephropathy. We examined eighty-five patients after chemotherapy (median age of twelve years). The median age at the point of diagnosis was 4.2 years, and the median follow-up time was 4.6 years. We performed classic laboratory tests assessing kidney function and compared the results with novel markers (KIM-1, beta-2 microglobulin, and IL-18). Features of subclinical renal injury were identified in forty-eight children (56.3% of the examined group). Nephropathy, especially tubulopathy, appeared more frequently in patients treated with ifosfamide, cisplatin, and/or carboplatin, following nephrectomy or abdominal radiotherapy (P = 0.14, P = 0.11, and P = 0.08, resp.). Concentrations of IL-18 and beta-2 microglobulin were comparable with classic signs of tubulopathy (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.05). Concentrations of IL-18 were also significantly higher in children treated with highly nephrotoxic drugs (P = 0.0004) following nephrectomy (P = 0.0007) and abdominal radiotherapy (P = 0.01). Concentrations of beta-2 microglobulin were higher after highly toxic chemotherapy (P = 0.004) and after radiotherapy (P = 0.02). ROC curves created utilizing IL-18 data allowed us to distinguish between children with nephropathy (value 28.8 pg/mL) and tubulopathy (37.1 pg/mL). Beta-2 microglobulin and IL-18 seem to be promising markers of chronic renal injury in children after chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT The risk from cumulative erythrocyte transfusions is poorly understood in oncology populations. This analysis among long-term survivors explored variation in transfusional burden over progressive eras of treatment identifying those at risk for iron overload. Transfusion records of 982 survivors of hematological malignancies treated at St. Jude were reviewed. After exclusions, 881 (90%) were assessed for cumulative volume, weight-adjusted volume, and transfusion number. Treatment intensity was assigned using the ITR-3 scale. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant and acute myeloid leukemia survivors had greater transfusional burden than conventional therapy recipients and acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors respectively. Survivors of 5-10 years were more likely than survivors of >10 years to receive ≥10 transfusions (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.8). Those with higher ITR-3 scores and more recent decades of treatment had a higher transfusional burden. Comprehensive transfusion histories are useful in identifying those at highest risk for iron overload.
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