To assess early treatment effects on computed tomography (CT) perfusion parameters after antiangiogenic and radiation therapy in subcutaneously implanted, human colon cancer xenografts in mice and to correlate in vivo CT perfusion parameters with ex vivo assays of tumor vascularity and hypoxia.
Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (perfusion CT, 129 mAs, 80 kV, 12 slices × 2.4 mm; 150 μL iodinated contrast agent injected at a rate of 1 mL/min intravenously) was performed in 100 subcutaneous human colon cancer xenografts on baseline day 0. Mice in group 1 (n=32) received a single dose of the antiangiogenic agent bevacizumab (10 mg/kg body weight), mice in group 2 (n=32) underwent a single radiation treatment (12 Gy), and mice in group 3 (n=32) remained untreated. On days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after treatment, 8 mice from each group underwent a second CT perfusion scan, respectively, after which tumors were excised for ex vivo analysis. Four mice were killed after baseline scanning on day 0 for ex vivo analysis. Blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and flow extraction product were calculated using the left ventricle as an arterial input function. Correlation of in vivo CT perfusion parameters with ex vivo microvessel density and extent of tumor hypoxia were assessed by immunofluorescence. Reproducibility of CT perfusion parameter measurements was calculated in an additional 8 tumor-bearing mice scanned twice within 5 hours with the same CT perfusion imaging protocol.
The intraclass correlation coefficients for BF, BV, and flow extraction product from repeated CT perfusion scans were 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.97), 0.88 (0.66, 0.95), and 0.88 (0.56, 0.95), respectively. Changes in perfusion parameters and tumor volumes over time were different between treatments. After bevacizumab treatment, all 3 perfusion parameters significantly decreased from day 1 (P ≤ 0.006) and remained significantly decreased until day 7 (P ≤ 0.008); tumor volume increased significantly only on day 7 (P=0.04). After radiation treatment, all 3 perfusion parameters decreased significantly on day 1 (P < 0.001); BF and flow extraction product increased again on day 3 and 5, although without reaching statistically significant difference; and tumor volumes did not change significantly at all time points (P ≥ 0.3). In the control group, all 3 perfusion parameters did not change significantly, whereas tumor volume increased significantly at all the time points, compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.04). Ex vivo immunofluorescent staining showed good correlation between all 3 perfusion parameters and microvessel density (ρ=0.71, 0.66, and 0.69 for BF, BV, and flow extraction product, respectively; P < 0.001). There was a trend toward negative correlation between extent of hypoxia and all 3 perfusion parameters (ρ=-0.53, -0.47, and -0.40 for BF, BV, and flow extraction product, respectively; P ≥ 0.05).
CT perfusion allows a reproducible, noninvasive assessment of tumor vascularity in human colon cancer xenografts in mice. After antiangiogenic and radiation therapy, BF, BV, and flow extraction product significantly decrease and change faster than the tumor volume.
"Discussion DCE-CT is a suitable technique for visualization and quantification of heterogeneity in vasculature of NSCLC tumors. Blood flow and volume are both indirect measures of tumor angiogenesis, which have shown to be measurable with perfusion studies  . Perfusion parameters extracted using the frequently used kinetic models in DCE-CT did not show strong correlations with static FDG-uptake in primary non-small cell lung cancer tumors indicating additional quantitative characteristics of the primary tumor . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) quantifies vasculature properties of tumors, whereas static FDG-PET/CT defines metabolic activity. Both imaging modalities are capable of showing intra-tumor heterogeneity. We investigated differences in vasculature properties within primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors measured by DCE-CT and metabolic activity from FDG-PET/CT.
Thirty three NSCLC patients were analyzed prior to treatment. FDG-PET/CT and DCE-CT were co-registered. The tumor was delineated and metabolic activity was segmented on the FDG-PET/CT in two regions: low (<50% maximum SUV) and high (⩾50% maximum SUV) metabolic uptake. Blood flow, blood volume and permeability were calculated using a maximum slope, deconvolution algorithm and a Patlak model. Correlations were assessed between perfusion parameters for the regions of interest.
DCE-CT provided additional information on vasculature and tumor heterogeneity that was not correlated to metabolic tumor activity. There was no significant difference between low and high metabolic active regions for any of the DCE-CT parameters. Furthermore, only moderate correlations between maximum SUV and DCE-CT parameters were observed.
No direct correlation was observed between FDG-uptake and parameters extracted from DCE-CT. DCE-CT may provide complementary information to the characterization of primary NSCLC tumors over FDG-PET/CT imaging.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 09/2013; 109(1). DOI:10.1016/j.radonc.2013.08.032 · 4.36 Impact Factor
"In this study, DCE-CT imaging was undertaken in a small subset of patients to examine the hepatic tumour perfusion as a measure of anti-angiogenic activity (Flaherty et al, 2008; Hahn et al, 2008; Raatschen et al, 2009; Kummar et al, 2011; Ren et al, 2012). Among the patients who underwent serial DCE-CT on this study, no informative changes were observed in tumour blood volume, K trans , permeability surface, mean transit time, or blood flow, though interpretation of these results is limited by the small sample size and the modest therapeutic efficacy (data not shown). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
This phase 1 clinical trial was conducted to determine the safety, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), and pharmacokinetics of imatinib, bevacizumab, and metronomic cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC).
Patients with refractory stage IV CRC were treated with bevacizumab 5 mg kg−1 i.v. every 2 weeks (fixed dose) plus oral cyclophosphamide q.d. and imatinib q.d. or b.i.d. in 28-day cycles with 3+3 dose escalation. Response was assessed every two cycles. Pharmacokinetics of imatinib and cyclophosphamide and circulating tumour, endothelial, and immune cell subsets were measured.
Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Maximum-tolerated doses were cyclophosphamide 50 mg q.d., imatinib 400 mg q.d., and bevacizumab 5 mg kg−1 i.v. every 2 weeks. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) included nausea/vomiting, neutropaenia, hyponatraemia, fistula, and haematuria. The DLT window required expansion to 42 days (1.5 cycles) to capture delayed toxicities. Imatinib exposure increased insignificantly after adding cyclophosphamide. Seven patients (20%) experienced stable disease for >6 months. Circulating tumour, endothelial, or immune cells were not associated with progression-free survival.
The combination of metronomic cyclophosphamide, imatinib, and bevacizumab is safe and tolerable without significant drug interactions. A subset of patients experienced prolonged stable disease independent of dose level.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2013; 109(7). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.553 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer cells rely on angiogenesis to fulfil their need for oxygen and nutrients; hence, agents targeting angiogenic pathways and mediators have been investigated as potential cancer drugs. Although this strategy has demonstrated delayed tumour progression--leading to progression-free survival and overall survival benefits compared with standard therapy--in some patients, the results are more modest than predicted. A significant number of patients either do not respond to antiangiogenic agents or fairly rapidly develop resistance to them, which raises questions about how resistance develops and how it can be overcome. Furthermore, whether cancers, once they develop resistance, become more invasive or lead to metastatic disease remains unclear. Several mechanisms of resistance have been recently proposed and emerging evidence indicates that, under certain experimental conditions, antiangiogenic agents increase intratumour hypoxia by promoting vessel pruning and inhibiting neoangiogenesis. Indeed, several studies have highlighted the possibility that inhibitors of VEGF (and its receptors) can promote an invasive metastatic switch, in part by creating an increasingly hypoxic tumour microenvironment. As a potential remedy, a number of therapeutic approaches have been investigated that target the hypoxic tumour compartment to improve the clinical outcome of antiangiogenic therapy.
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