Ganoderic acid DM, a natural triterpenoid, induces DNA damage, G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells
ABSTRACT Ganoderic acid DM (GADM) is a triterpenoid isolated from Ganoderma lucidum, a well-known edible medicinal mushroom. In the present study, we found that GADM effectively inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, which was much stronger than that of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. GADM both concentration- and time-dependently mediated G1 cell cycle arrest and significantly decreased the protein level of CDK2, CDK6, cycle D1, p-Rb and c-Myc in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, GADM obviously induced DNA fragmentation and cleavage of PARP which are the characteristics of apoptosis and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in MCF-7 cells. Besides, we also showed that GADM elicited DNA damage as measured by comet assay which is a sensitive method for DNA damage detection. γ-H2AX, a marker of DNA damage, was also slightly up-regulated after treated with GADM for 6h, suggesting that the G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by GADM may be partially resulted from GADM-induced DNA damage. These results have advanced our current understandings of the anti-cancer mechanisms of GADM.
- SourceAvailable from: Jelena Živković
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- "Ganoderic acid DM (Table 2), isolated from this species, exerted anti-prostate cancer activity via inhibiting 5-reductase activity. Furthermore, it inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line via induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis . Ganoderic acid Mk, isolated from mycelia of G. lucidum dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of HeLa cells via induction of apoptosis . "
ABSTRACT: Mycotherapy is defined as the study of the use of extracts and compounds obtained from mushrooms as medicines or health-promoting agents. The present review updates the recent findings on anticancer/antitumor agents derived from mushroom extracts and their metabolites. The increasing number of studies in the past few years revealed mushroom extracts as potent antitumor agents. Also, numerous studies were conducted on bioactive compounds isolated from mushrooms reporting the heteropolysaccharides, β-glucans, α-glucans, proteins, complexes of polysaccharides with proteins, fatty acids, nucleoside antagonists, terpenoids, sesquiterpenes, lanostanoids, sterols and phenolic acids as promising antitumor agents. Also, molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines are discussed in this review. Findings with Antrodia camphorata and Ganoderma lucidium extracts and isolated compounds are presented, as being the most deeply studied previously.Current topics in medicinal chemistry 10/2013; 13(21). · 3.45 Impact Factor
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- " et al . 2012 ; Lee et al . 2012 Ganoderma lucidum Ganoderic acid Me ( ganoderic derivative ) Anti - metastatic effect , reduce tumor invasion Chen et al . 2008 Ganoderic acids A , F and H Inhibition of Jiang et al . 2008 1 . expression of CDK4 2 . secretion of uPA 3 . adhesion , migration and invasion Ganoderic acid DM Anti - proliferative effect Wu et al . 2012 Lucidenic acids A , B , C , and N Inhibition of Weng et al . 2007 1 . PMA - induced MMP - 9 activity 2 . invasion Ganoderma lucidum Ganoderic acid T , Ganoderic acid F Antimetastatic effect Xu et al . 2010 ; Tang et al . 2006a 11β - Hydroxy - 3 , 7 - dioxo - 5α - lanosta"
ABSTRACT: Exploration of natural sources for novel bioactive compounds has been an emerging field of medicine over the past decades, providing drugs or lead compounds of considerable therapeutic potential. This research has provided exciting evidence on the isolation of microbe-derived metabolites having prospective biological activities. Mushrooms have been valued as traditional sources of natural bioactive compounds for many centuries and have been targeted as promising therapeutic agents. Many novel biologically active compounds have been reported as a result of research on medicinal mushrooms. In this review, we compile the information on bioactive structure-elucidated metabolites from macrofungi discovered over the last decade and highlight their unique chemical diversity and potential benefits to novel drug discovery. The main emphasis is on their anti-Alzheimer, antidiabetic, anti-malarial, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, antitumor, anti-viral and hypocholesterolemic activities which are important medicinal targets in terms of drug discovery today. Moreover, the reader’s attention is brought to focus on mushroom products and food supplements available in the market with claimed biological activities and potential human health benefits. Keywords: Medicinal mushrooms. Anti-oxidant . Anti-tumor . Anti-HIV . Anti-microbial . Anti-viral . Hypocholesterolemic . Anti-diabetic . Anti-Alzheimer . Anti-malarial . Food supplementsFungal diversity 09/2013; 62(1):1-40. DOI:10.1007/s13225-013-0265-2 · 6.94 Impact Factor
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- "In recent years, ginseng has been included in the pharmacopoeias of Germany, Austria, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In adjuvant breast cancer therapy, ginseng has been used to maintain natural energy, increase physical and psychomotor performance, and improve mood and general health  . In vitro experiments and in vivo animal studies have reported that ginsenosides, a group of bioactive compounds identified in ginseng, have a variety of beneficial effects, including immunomodulatory, antistress, antifatigue, and anticarcinogenic effects . "
ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a life-threatening disease among women worldwide with annual rates of reported incidence and death increasing alarmingly. Chemotherapy is a recommended and effective treatment option for breast cancer; however, the narrow therapeutic indices and varied side effects of currently approved drugs present major hurdles in increasing its effectiveness. An increasing number of literature evidence indicate that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used in treatment-related symptom control and alleviation of side effects plays an important role in increasing survival rate and quality of life in breast cancer patients. This review focuses on the use of herbal medicines and acupuncture in palliative care and as adjuvants in the treatment of breast cancer. Herbal medicinal treatments, the correlation of clinical use with demonstrated in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action, and the use of certain acupoints in acupuncture are summarized. The aim of this review is to facilitate an understanding of the current practice and usefulness of herbal medicine and acupuncture as adjuvants in breast cancer therapy.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 06/2013; 2013:437948. DOI:10.1155/2013/437948 · 1.88 Impact Factor