Strength prior to endurance intra-session exercise sequence optimizes neuromuscular and cardiovascular gains in elderly men

Exercise Research Laboratory, Physical Education School, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
Experimental gerontology (Impact Factor: 3.49). 12/2011; 47(2):164-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.exger.2011.11.013
Source: PubMed


This study investigated the effects of different intra-session exercise sequences in the cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations induced by concurrent training in elderly. Twenty-six healthy elderly men (64.7±4.1years), were randomly placed into two concurrent training groups: strength training prior to (SE, n=13) or after (ES, n=13) endurance training. Subjects trained strength and endurance training 3 times per week performing both exercise types in the same training session. The peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), maximum aerobic workload (W(máx)), absolute (VT(1) and VT(2)) and relative (VT(1)% and VT(2)%) ventilatory thresholds, as well as workloads at VT(1) and VT(2) (W(VT1) and W(VT2)) were evaluated during a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer before and after the training. In addition, muscle quality (MQ) was evaluated by the quotient between maximal dynamic strength (one repetition maximum test) of the knee extensors and the quadriceps femoris muscle thickness determined by ultrasonography. There were no modifications after training in the VT(1), VT(2), VT(1)%, and VT(2)%. There was significant increase in the W(VT1) only in SE (P<0.05), as well as significant increase in the W(VT2) in both groups (P<0.001). There was significant increase in the VO(2peak), with both groups showing increases (P<0.001), with no difference between groups; as well significant increase in the W(máx) (P<0.001) with no difference between SE and ES. The force per unit of muscle mass of knee extensors increased in both groups (P<0.001), but the increase was significantly higher in SE than in ES (27.5±12.7 vs. 15.2±10.3%, P<0.02). Hence, the intra-session exercise sequence had no influence in the maximal endurance power adaptations to concurrent training, but had influence in the magnitude of the muscle quality enhancements.

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    • "MT was measured for the VL, RF, VM, and vastus intermedius (VI), with the probe positioned according to descriptions provided in previous studies (Chilibeck et al. 2004; Korhonen et al. 2009; Kumagai et al. 2000; Miyatani et al. 2000). Moreover, the overall quadriceps femoris MT (MT QUA SUM ) was calculated from the sum of the four muscles (VL+RF+VM+VI) (Cadore et al. 2012; Radaelli et al. 2013). The sites of MT measurements were mapped using transparent paper to ensure identical measurement positions post-testing. "
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    ABSTRACT: The strength training has been shown to be effective for attenuating the age-related physiological decline. However, the adequate volume of strength training volume adequate to promote improvements, mainly during the initial period of training, still remains controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a short-term strength training program with single or multiple sets in elderly women. Maximal dynamic (1-RM) and isometric strength, muscle activation, muscle thickness (MT), and muscle quality (MQ = 1-RM and MT quadriceps quotient) of the knee extensors were assessed. Subjects were randomly assigned into one of two groups: single set (SS; n = 14) that performed one set per exercise or multiple sets (MS; n = 13) that performed three-sets per exercise, twice weekly for 6 weeks. Following training, there were significant increases (p ≤ 0.05) in knee extension 1-RM (16.1 ± 12 % for SS group and 21.7 ± 7.7 % for MS group), in all MT (p ≤ 0.05; vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius), and in MQ (p ≤ 0.05); 15.0 ± 12.2 % for SS group and 12.6 ± 7.2 % for MS group), with no differences between groups. These results suggest that during the initial stages of strength training, single- and multiple-set training demonstrate similar capacity for increasing dynamic strength, MT, and MQ of the knee extensors in elderly women.
    Age 12/2014; 36(6):9720. DOI:10.1007/s11357-014-9720-6 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    • "Then the distance between them was accepted as MT. The quadriceps femoris MT (MT QUA SUM ) was calculated from the sum of the muscles (RF + VI + VL + VM) (Cadore et al. 2012) while the elbow flexor muscle MT (MT EF SUM ) was calculated from the sum of the muscles BB and brachialis (Radaelli et al. 2013). The same investigator conducted all ultrasound measurements at all test times. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of low- and high-volume strength trainings on neuromuscular adaptations of lower- and upper-body muscles in older women after 6 weeks (6WE), 13 weeks (13WE), and 20 weeks (20WE) of training. Healthy older women were assigned to low-volume (LV) or high-volume (HV) training groups. The LV group performed one set of each exercise, while the HV group performed three sets, 2 days/week. Knee extension and elbow flexion one-repetition maximum (1-RM), maximal isometric strength, maximal muscle activation, and muscle thickness (MT) of the lower- and upper-body muscles, as well as lower-body muscle quality (MQ) obtained by ultrasonography, were evaluated. Knee extension and elbow flexion 1-RM improved at all time points for both groups; however, knee extension 1-RM gains were greater for the HV group after 20WE. Maximal isometric strength of the lower body for both groups increased only at 20WE, while upper-body maximal isometric strength increased after 13WE and 20WE. Maximal activation of the lower and upper body for both groups increased only after 20WE. Both groups showed significant increases in MT of their lower and upper body, with greater gains in lower-body MT for the HV group at 20WE. MQ improved in both groups after 13WE and 20WE, whereas the HV group improved more than the LV group at 20WE. These results showed that low- and high-volume trainings have a similar adaptation time course in the muscular function of upper-body muscles. However, high-volume training appears to be more efficient for lower-body muscles after 20 weeks of training.
    Age 04/2014; 36(2):881-892. DOI:10.1007/s11357-013-9611-2 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    • "Similar to the results observed in the strength performance and hypertrophy above mentioned, Izquierdo et al. [22] observed similar aerobic power gains in elderly men who underwent 1 session per week of strength training and 1 session per week of cycle endurance training in the CT group (28%) and those who underwent ET twice per week (23%) after 16 weeks of training. Interestingly, in the study by Cadore et al. [33], similar enhancements were observed in the peak oxygen uptake, maximal workload at cycle ergometer, and the workload at the second ventilatory threshold among groups that performed strength training prior to an endurance exercise sequence and the opposite exercise order. However, greater improvement was found in the workload at the first ventilatory threshold in the group that strength trained prior to endurance exercise in each session. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aging is associated with declines in the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems, resulting in an impaired capacity to perform daily activities. Frailty is an age-associated biological syndrome characterized by decreases in the biological functional reserve and resistance to stressors due to changes in several physiological systems, which puts older individuals at special risk of disability. To counteract the neuromuscular and cardiovascular declines associated with aging, as well as to prevent and treat the frailty syndrome, the strength and endurance training seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle hypertrophy, strength and power output, as well as endurance performance. The first purpose of this review was discuss the neuromuscular adaptations to strength training, as well as the cardiovascular adaptations to endurance training in healthy and frail elderly subjects. In addition, the second purpose of this study was investigate the concurrent training adaptations in the elderly. Based on the results found, the combination of strength and endurance training (i.e., concurrent training) performed at moderate volume and moderate to high intensity in elderly populations is the most effective way to improve both neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory functions. Moreover, exercise interventions that include muscle power training should be prescribed to frail elderly in order to improve the overall physical status of this population and prevent disability.
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