[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lifestyle changes soon after diagnosis might improve outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but no large trials have compared interventions. We investigated the effects of diet and physical activity on blood pressure and glucose concentrations.
We did a randomised, controlled trial in southwest England in adults aged 30-80 years in whom type 2 diabetes had been diagnosed 5-8 months previously. Participants were assigned usual care (initial dietary consultation and follow-up every 6 months; control group), an intensive diet intervention (dietary consultation every 3 months with monthly nurse support), or the latter plus a pedometer-based activity programme, in a 2:5:5 ratio. The primary endpoint was improvement in glycated haemoglobin A(1c)(HbA(1c)) concentration and blood pressure at 6 months. Analysis was done by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN92162869.
Of 593 eligible individuals, 99 were assigned usual care, 248 the diet regimen, and 246 diet plus activity. Outcome data were available for 587 (99%) and 579 (98%) participants at 6 and 12 months, respectively. At 6 months, glycaemic control had worsened in the control group (mean baseline HbA(1c) percentage 6·72, SD 1·02, and at 6 months 6·86, 1·02) but improved in the diet group (baseline-adjusted difference in percentage of HbA(1c) -0·28%, 95% CI -0·46 to -0·10; p=0·005) and diet plus activity group (-0·33%, -0·51 to -0·14; p<0·001). These differences persisted to 12 months, despite less use of diabetes drugs. Improvements were also seen in bodyweight and insulin resistance between the intervention and control groups. Blood pressure was similar in all groups.
An intensive diet intervention soon after diagnosis can improve glycaemic control. The addition of an activity intervention conferred no additional benefit.
Diabetes UK and the UK Department of Health.
The Lancet 06/2011; 378(9786):129-39. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60442-X · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A lower in vivo mitochondrial function has been reported in both type 2 diabetic patients and first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients. The nature of this reduction is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a lower intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity may underlie lower in vivo mitochondrial function observed in diabetic patients.
Ten overweight diabetic patients, 12 first-degree relatives, and 16 control subjects, all men, matched for age and BMI, participated in this study. Insulin sensitivity was measured with a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Ex vivo intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity was determined in permeabilized skinned muscle fibers using high-resolution respirometry and normalized for mitochondrial content. In vivo mitochondrial function was determined by measuring phosphocreatine recovery half-time after exercise using (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was lower in diabetic patients compared with control subjects (11.2 +/- 2.8 vs. 28.9 +/- 3.7 micromol x kg(-1) fat-free mass x min(-1), respectively; P = 0.003), with intermediate values for first-degree relatives (22.1 +/- 3.4 micromol x kg(-1) fat-free mass x min(-1)). In vivo mitochondrial function was 25% lower in diabetic patients (P = 0.034) and 23% lower in first-degree relatives, but the latter did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.08). Interestingly, ADP-stimulated basal respiration was 35% lower in diabetic patients (P = 0.031), and fluoro-carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazone-driven maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity was 31% lower in diabetic patients (P = 0.05) compared with control subjects with intermediate values for first-degree relatives.
A reduced basal ADP-stimulated and maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity underlies the reduction in in vivo mitochondrial function, independent of mitochondrial content. A reduced capacity at both the level of the electron transport chain and phosphorylation system underlies this impaired mitochondrial capacity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perturbations in body weight have been shown to affect energy expenditure and efficiency during physical activity. The separate effects of weight loss and exercise training on exercise efficiency or the proportion of energy derived from fat oxidation during physical activity, however, are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on metabolic efficiency, economy (EC), and fat oxidation during steady-state moderate submaximal exercise. Sixty-four sedentary older (67 +/- 0.5 yr) overweight to obese (30.7 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) volunteers completed 4 mo of either diet-induced weight loss (WL; n = 11), exercise training (EX; n = 36), or the combination of both interventions (WLEX; n = 17). Energy expenditure, gross efficiency (GE), EC, and proportion of energy expended from fat (EF) were determined during a 1-h submaximal (50% of peak aerobic capacity) cycle ergometry exercise before the intervention and at the same absolute work rate after the intervention. We found that EX increased GE by 4.7 +/- 2.2%. EC was similarly increased by 4.2 +/- 2.1% by EX. The addition of concomitant WL to EX (WLEX) resulted in greater increases in GE (9.0 +/- 3.3%) compared with WL alone but not compared with EX alone. These effects remained after adjusting for changes in lean body mass. The proportion of energy derived from fat during the bout of moderate exercise increased with EX and WLEX but not with WL. From these findings, we conclude that exercise training, either alone or in combination with weight loss, increases both exercise efficiency and the utilization of fat during moderate physical activity in previously sedentary, obese older adults. Weight loss alone, however, significantly improves neither efficiency nor utilization of fat during exercise.
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