Sodium depletion enhances renal expression of (pro)renin receptor via cyclic GMP-protein kinase G signaling pathway.
ABSTRACT (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) is expressed in renal vasculature, glomeruli, and tubules. The physiological regulation of this receptor is not well established. We hypothesized that sodium depletion increases PRR expression through cGMP- protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway. Renal PRR expressions were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats on normal sodium or low-sodium diet (LS) and in cultured rat proximal tubular cells and mouse renal inner medullary collecting duct cells exposed to LS concentration. LS augmented PRR expression in renal glomeruli, proximal tubules, distal tubules, and collecting ducts. LS also increased cGMP production and PKG activity. In cells exposed to normal sodium, cGMP analog increased PKG activity and upregulated PRR expression. In cells exposed to LS, blockade of guanylyl cyclase with 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one decreased PKG activity and downregulated PRR expression. PKG inhibition decreased phosphatase protein phosphatase 2A activity; suppressed LS-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, c-Jun, and nuclear factor-κB p65; and attenuated LS-mediated PRR upregulation. LS also enhanced DNA binding of cAMP response element binding protein 1 to cAMP response elements, nuclear factor-κB p65 to nuclear factor-κB elements, and c-Jun to activator protein 1 elements in PRR promoter in proximal tubular cells. We conclude that sodium depletion upregulates renal PRR expression via the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway by enhancing binding of cAMP response element binding protein 1, nuclear factor-κB p65, and c-Jun to PRR promotor.
Article: The subtype 2 (AT2) angiotensin receptor mediates renal production of nitric oxide in conscious rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The angiotensin AT2 receptor modulates renal production of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP; J. Clin. Invest. 1996. 97:1978-1982). In the present study, we hypothesized that angiotensin II (Ang II) acts at the AT2 receptor to stimulate renal production of nitric oxide leading to the previously observed increase in cGMP. Using a microdialysis technique, we monitored changes in renal interstitial fluid (RIF) cGMP in response to intravenous infusion of the AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123319 (PD), the AT1 receptor antagonist Losartan, the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor nitro--arginine-methyl-ester (-NAME), the specific neural NOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), or Ang II individually or combined in conscious rats during low or normal sodium balance. Sodium depletion significantly increased RIF cGMP. During sodium depletion, both PD and -NAME caused a similar decrease in RIF cGMP. Combined administration of PD and -NAME decreased RIF cGMP to levels observed with PD or -NAME alone or during normal sodium intake. During normal sodium intake, Ang II caused a twofold increase in RIF cGMP. Neither PD nor -NAME, individually or combined, changed RIF cGMP. Combined administration of Ang II and either PD or -NAME produced a significant decrease in RIF cGMP compared with that induced by Ang II alone. Combined administration of Ang II, PD, and -NAME blocked the increase in RIF cGMP produced by Ang II alone. During sodium depletion, 7-NI decreased RIF cGMP, but the reduction of cGMP in response to PD alone or PD combined with 7-NI was greater than with 7-NI alone. During normal sodium intake, 7-NI blocked the Ang II-induced increase in RIF cGMP. PD alone or combined with 7-NI produced a greater inhibition of cGMP than did 7-NI alone. During sodium depletion, 7-NI (partially) and -NAME (completely) inhibited RIF cGMP responses to -arginine. These data demonstrate that activation of the renin- angiotensin system during sodium depletion increases renal nitric oxide production through stimulation by Ang II at the angiotensin AT2 receptor. This response is partially mediated by neural NOS, but other NOS isoforms also contribute to nitric oxide production by this pathway.Journal of Clinical Investigation 08/1997; 100(2):264-9. · 15.39 Impact Factor
Article: Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase regulates the expression of thioredoxin and thioredoxin peroxidase-1 during hormesis in response to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human neuroblastoma cells, SH-SY5Y, contain relatively low levels of thioredoxin (Trx); thus, they serve favorably as a model for studying oxidative stress-induced apoptosis (Andoh, T., Chock, P. B., and Chiueh, C. C. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 9655-9660). When these neurotrophic cells were subjected to nonlethal 2-h serum deprivation, their neuronal nitric oxide synthase and Trx were up-regulated, and the cells became more tolerant of oxidative stress, indicating that NO may protect cells from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. Here, the mechanism by which NO exerts its protective effects was investigated. Our results reveal that in SH-SY5Y cells, NO inhibits apoptosis through its ability to activate guanylate cyclase, which in turn activates the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). The activated PKG is required to protect cells from lipid peroxidation and apoptosis, to inhibit caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation, and to elevate the levels of Trx peroxidase-1 and Trx, which subsequently induces the expression of Bcl-2. Furthermore, active PKG promotes the elevation of c-Jun, phosphorylated MAPK/ERK1/2, and c-Myc, consistent with the notion that PKG enhances the expression of Trx through its c-Myc-, AP-1-, and PEA3-binding motifs. Elevation of Trx and Trx peroxidase-1 and Mn(II)-superoxide dismutase would reduce H(2)O(2) and O(2)(), respectively. Thus, the cytoprotective effect of NO in SH-SY5Y cells appears to proceed via the PKG-mediated pathway, and S-nitrosylation of caspases plays a minimal role.Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2003; 278(2):885-90. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Renal (pro)renin receptor upregulation in diabetic rats through enhanced angiotensin AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase activity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) in the glomerular mesangium and the subendothelial layer of the renal arteries. We hypothesized that diabetes upregulates PRR expression through enhanced angiotensin subtype 1 (AT1) receptor-NADPH oxidase cascade activity. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis and immunostaining, we studied renal localization of the PRR in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model and in response to 1 week of treatment with the AT1 receptor blocker valsartan (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), the angiotensin AT2 receptor blocker PD123319 (0.5 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI; 0.5 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) 6 weeks post-induction of diabetes. Both PRR mRNA and protein were expressed constitutively in the kidneys of normal rat renal cortex and medulla, mainly in glomerular mesangium, proximal, distal and collecting tubules. Compared with normal rats (100%), diabetic rats demonstrated an increase in renal PRR mRNA (184%), protein (228%) and immunostaining. Valsartan and DPI prevented the increase in the PRR mRNA (106 and 126%, respectively), protein (97 and 140%, respectively) and immunostaining that was seen in the kidneys of diabetic rats. The AT2 blocker PD123319 did not have significant effects on PRR mRNA (157%) or protein expression (200%) in the kidneys of diabetic rats. These results demonstrate that the PRR is constitutively expressed in renal glomeruli and tubules. Expression of the PRR is upregulated in diabetes via enhancement of AT1 receptor-NADPH oxidase activity.Experimental Physiology 06/2008; 93(5):709-14. · 3.21 Impact Factor