Canine and feline inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) denotes a heterogeneous group of idiopathic, chronic, relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract that are immunologically-mediated. While their exact etiologies remain unknown, results from basic science and clinical studies suggest that interplay between genetic factors and enteric bacteria are crucial for disease development, owing to abnormal host responses directed against the commensal microbiota. Key clinical signs include vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss, and histopathologic lesions of inflammation may involve the stomach, small intestine, or colon. Recent advances in molecular tools, disease activity indices, and biomarker development now permit objective assessment of IBD severity at diagnosis and in response to various therapies. Treatment of IBD involves both dietary and pharamacologic interventions as well as therapeutic manipulation of the enteric microbiota through the use of antibiotics and soluble fiber (prebiotic) supplements. Here we provide a comprehensive overview on the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis strategies, current treatment recommendations, and outcomes from veterinary studies in dogs and cats with IBD. We also offer scientific comparison between human and canine IBD.
"Canine IBD denotes a group of idiopathic, chronic, relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract that are immunologically-mediated (Allenspach et al., 2007; Jergens and Simpson, 2012). The pathogenesis of IBD in dogs is complex and likely involves defects in mucosal barrier function and mucosal immunity, similar to human IBD (Allenspach, 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is believed to result from complex interplay between genetic, microbial, and immunologic factors. Abnormal cell death by apoptosis may result in the persistence of activated intestinal T cells that contribute to mucosal inflammation and clinical severity. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the mucosal expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in different intestinal compartments and their association with inflammatory indices in dogs with IBD. Apoptosis of lamina propria (LP) T cells in duodenal, ileal, and colonic tissues in control and IBD dogs was analyzed by caspase 3/Bcl-2 immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays. Densities and distributions of LP caspase 3 and Bcl-2 cells were correlated to histopathologic lesions and the clinical activity index (CIBDAI). Compared to control tissues, IBD dogs had significantly (P<0.01) fewer caspase 3 cells in colonic mucosa. Double immunostaining identified the majority of apoptotic cells as TUNEL+/caspase 3+. Within intestinal mucosa of IBD dogs, there were significantly greater numbers of Bcl-2 cells at the apical and basilar villus in the duodenum as compared to the colon and to the apical and basilar villus in the ileum (P<0.001 for all comparisons). There were significantly greater numbers of Bcl-2 cells at the apical and basilar villus of the duodenum but significantly fewer numbers of Bcl-2 cells at the apical villus of the ileum in IBD dogs compared with controls (P<0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.02, respectively). There was a significant association between the number of Bcl-2 cells in the duodenum of IBD dogs and the CIBDAI (P<0.001 each for mild, moderate and severe clinical IBD). In conclusion, apoptosis of T lymphocytes varies within intestinal compartments of dogs with IBD. Mucosal imbalance of Bcl-2/caspase 3 expression favors T cell resistance to apoptosis which may contribute to T cell accumulation and chronic intestinal inflammation, similar to human IBD.
"Canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a diversified group of intestinal disorders characterized by cellular infiltration of the mucous membrane in the lamina propria area (Craven et al. 2004, Allenspach et al. 2006, Allenspach et al. 2007, Jergens and Simpson 2012). In gastroenterology centers, canine inflammatory bowel disease is diagnosed in view of the results of histopathological examinations of the intestinal mucous membrane and by ruling out other known Correspondence to: A. Rychlik, e-mail: email@example.com "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the degree of correlation between the intensity of clinical symptoms and the macroscopic and histopathological evaluation of the small intestinal mucous membrane in dogs. The results point to a statistically significant correlation between the values of the CIBDAI index and the histopathological assessment of the duodenum mucous membrane in patients with minor and moderate intensity of the disease. The lowest correlation coefficient was obtained for the indicator comparing macroscopic and histopathological evaluations. A positive correlation between the CIBDAI score and the histopathological index offers a base for applying it in the monitoring and treatment of mild, moderate and severe cases of canine inflammatory bowel disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of immunomodulators in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs. Twenty-eight dogs diagnosed with IBD took part in the study. The animals received a food containing extruded immunomodulators: β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan, β-hydroxy-β-methyl-butyrate (HMB) and levamisole for 42 days. Whole blood samples were analysed before and after therapy assessing changes in phagocyte activity (respiratory burst activity, RBA and potential killing activity, PKA), evaluation of proliferation response of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes and serum gamma globulin levels, lysozyme activity, ceruloplasmin levels and interleukin activity (IL-6 and IL-10). In this experiment, β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan delivered the highest level of treatment efficacy by producing the quickest therapeutic effect, lowering Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Index (CIBDAI) values to below 3, improving histopathological parameters, decreasing IL-6 levels, increasing IL-10 concentrations, and producing remission periods longer than six months. HMB and levamisole were also effective in lowering CIBDAI scores, but the abatement of clinical symptoms was slower and less pronounced in comparison with β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan. The results indicate that β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan can be useful in the treatment of canine IBD.
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