Patients with Retinal Vasculitis Rarely Suffer from Systemic Vasculitis
ABSTRACT Systemic vasculitis is often mistakenly assumed to be a common cause of retinal vasculitis. We sought to determine the relationship between retinal vasculitis and systemic vasculitis.
A selected review was performed on 1390 charts of patients attending the uveitis clinic at the Oregon Health and Science University between 1985 and 2010. Included in the review were all patients with diagnoses commonly associated with retinal vasculitis and all patients who were diagnosed with a systemic vasculitis. Retinal vasculitis was identified by perivascular exudates, intraretinal hemorrhage, or cotton wool spots as seen on clinical examination or by vascular occlusion or leakage as identified by fluorescein angiogram.
Two hundred seven or 14.9% of patients with uveitis had retinal vasculitis as a component of the intraocular inflammation. Thirty-five patients had retinal vasculitis that was primary, ie, not associated with a systemic disease, and the dominant manifestation of the uveitis. Fourteen of the patients with retinal vasculitis had Behcet's disease. Only 11 of the 1390 patients with uveitis had a systemic vasculitis. Of these 11, four had retinal vasculitis including 1 secondary to a cytomegalovirus retinitis. Thus, systemic vasculitis was directly responsible for 1.4% or 3 of 207 cases of retinal vasculitis. Nonvasculitic systemic diseases such as sarcoidosis (n = 13), syndromes confined to the eye such as pars planitis (n = 36), and intraocular infections (n = 29) were far more common causes of retinal vasculitis.
Retinal vasculitis is a relatively common feature of uveitis. Patients with retinal vasculitis, however, rarely suffer from 1 of the classical systemic vasculitides.
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ABSTRACT: Ischemic retinal vasculitis is an inflammation of retinal blood vessels associated with vascular occlusion and subsequent retinal hypoperfusion. It can cause visual loss secondary to macular ischemia, macular edema, and neovascularization leading to vitreous hemorrhage, fibrovascular proliferation, and tractional retinal detachment. Ischemic retinal vasculitis can be idiopathic or secondary to systemic disease such as in Behçet's disease, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Corticosteroids with or without immunosuppressive medication are the mainstay treatment in retinal vasculitis together with laser photocoagulation of retinal ischemic areas. Intravitreal injections of bevacizumab are used to treat neovascularization secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus but should be timed with retinal laser photocoagulation to prevent further progression of retinal ischemia. Antitumor necrosis factor agents have shown promising results in controlling refractory retinal vasculitis excluding multiple sclerosis. Interferon has been useful to control inflammation and induce neovascular regression in retinal vasculitis secondary to Behçet's disease and multiple sclerosis. The long term effect of these management strategies in preventing the progression of retinal ischemia and preserving vision is not well understood and needs to be further studied.Journal of Ophthalmology 04/2014; 2014:197675. DOI:10.1155/2014/197675 · 1.94 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
Clinical and Experimental Optometry 11/2014; 97(6):568-9. DOI:10.1111/cxo.12181 · 1.26 Impact Factor
Article: The course of retinal vasculitis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine if characteristics of retinal vasculitis correlate with ocular complications, or the response to different lines of treatment. We performed a computerised database analysis of 56 patients evaluated for uveitis at the Casey Eye Institute from September 1985 until May 2010. All patients had non-infectious retinal vasculitis and at least 1 year of follow-up. Although occlusive vasculitis was rare, retinal neovascularisation occurred much more commonly in the occlusive vasculitis subgroup than among the non-occlusive vasculitis subgroup (p<0.01). Epiretinal membrane (ERM) was found more commonly in the retinal vasculitis patients who presented with cotton wool spots and intraretinal haemorrhage compared to retinal vasculitis patients who presented with sheathing noted on clinical examination (p<0.01). Smoking was significantly related to vision loss. Age at presentation below 40 years correlated with therapy beyond oral corticosteroids CONCLUSIONS: The heterogeneity of retinal vasculitis should be considered in providing prognostic information. Neovascularisation occurs more commonly in occlusive retinal vasculitis, and ERM is diagnosed more frequently in conjunction with cotton wool spots and intraretinal haemorrhage rather than just vascular sheathing. Cigarette use predicts visual loss and patients who are relatively young often receive treatment beyond oral corticosteroids.The British journal of ophthalmology 02/2014; 98(6). DOI:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-303443 · 2.92 Impact Factor