Hemispheric asymmetries of cortical volume in the human brain.

New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
Cortex (Impact Factor: 6.04). 11/2011; DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2011.11.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hemispheric asymmetry represents a cardinal feature of cerebral organization, but the nature of structural and functional differences between the hemispheres is far from fully understood. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging morphometry, we identified several volumetric differences between the two hemispheres of the human brain. Heteromodal inferoparietal and lateral prefrontal cortices are more extensive in the right than left hemisphere, as is visual cortex. Heteromodal mesial and orbital prefrontal and cingulate cortices are more extensive in the left than right hemisphere, as are somatosensory, parts of motor, and auditory cortices. Thus, heteromodal association cortices are more extensively represented on the lateral aspect of the right than in the left hemisphere, and modality-specific cortices are more extensively represented on the lateral aspect of the left than in the right hemisphere. On the mesial aspect heteromodal association cortices are more extensively represented in the left than right hemisphere.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Structural asymmetry of whole brain white matter (WM) pathways, i.e., the connectome, has been demonstrated using fiber tractography based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, DTI-based tractography fails to resolve axonal fiber bundles that intersect within an imaging voxel, and therefore may not fully characterize the extent of asymmetry. The goal of this study was to assess structural asymmetry with tractography based on diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI), which improves upon DTI-based tractography by delineating intravoxel crossing fibers. DKI images were obtained from 42 healthy subjects. By using automatic segmentation, gray matter (GM) was parcellated into anatomically defined regions of interest (ROIs). WM pathways were reconstructed with both DKI- and DTI-based tractography. The connectivity between the ROIs was quantified with the streamlines connecting the ROIs. The asymmetry index (AI) was utilized to quantify hemispheric differences in the connectivity of cortical ROIs and of links interconnecting cortical ROIs. Our results demonstrated that leftward asymmetrical ROIs and links were observed in frontal, parietal, temporal lobes, and insula. Rightward asymmetrical ROI and links were observed in superior frontal lobe, cingulate cortex, fusiform, putamen, and medial temporal lobe. Interestingly, these observed structural asymmetries were incompletely identified with DTI-based tractography. These results suggest that DKI-based tractography can improve the identification of asymmetrical connectivity patterns, thereby serving as an additional tool in the evaluation of the structural bases of functional lateralization.
    Brain Research 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.09.002 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is caused mainly by the hypofunction of the inner ear, but recent findings point also toward a central component of presbycusis. We used MR morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with a 3 T MR system with the aim to study the state of the central auditory system in a group of elderly subjects (> 65 years) with mild presbycusis, in a group of elderly subjects with expressed presbycusis and in young controls. Cortical reconstruction, volumetric segmentation and auditory pathway tractography were performed. Three parameters were evaluated by morphometry: the volume of the gray matter, the surface area of the gyrus and the thickness of the cortex. In all experimental groups the surface area and gray matter volume were larger on the left side in the Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale and slightly larger in the gyrus frontalis superior, whereas they were larger on the right side in the primary visual cortex. Almost all of the measured parameters were significantly smaller in the elderly subjects in the Heschl's gyrus, planum temporale and gyrus frontalis superior. Aging did not change the side asymmetry (laterality) of the gyri. In the central part of the auditory pathway above the inferior colliculus, a trend towards an effect of aging was present in the axial vector of the diffusion (L1) variable of DTI, with increased values observed in elderly subjects. A trend towards a decrease of L1 on the left side, which was more pronounced in the elderly groups, was observed. The effect of hearing loss was present in subjects with expressed presbycusis as a trend towards an increase of the radial vectors (L2L3) in the white matter under the Heschĺs gyrus. These results suggest that in addition to peripheral changes, changes in the central part of the auditory system in elderly subjects are also present; however, the extent of hearing loss does not play a significant role in the central changes.
    Neuroscience 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.12.010 · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8-12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8-12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.