Establishment and characterization of a novel nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (SUNE2) from a Cantonese patient.
ABSTRACT The undifferentiated form of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common malignant head and neck cancer in South China, especially in Cantonese populations. However, few NPC cell lines have been established from the patients in this region. In this study, we established a new NPC cell line, termed SUNE2, from a Cantonese patient with undifferentiated NPC. This cell line had extremely low concentrations of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in long-term culture and expressed low levels of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A), BamH1-A right frame 1 (BARF1), EBV-encoded RNA-1 (EBER1), and EBV-encoded RNA-2 (EBER2) in early passages. SUNE2 cells also showed much stronger transforming ability than 5-8F cells in colony formation assays and anchorage-independent growth assays in soft agar, and they only need 2 weeks to form tumors in nude mice. In summary, the SUNE2 cell line is a new in vitro model that can be used for further research on the mechanisms underlying the occurrence and development of NPC.
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ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has the highest metastatic potential among head and neck cancers. Distant metastasis is the major cause of treatment failure. The role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in NPC progression remains unknown. Our multivariate survival analyses of 255 patients with NPC revealed that higher IL-8 expression in primary NPC tissue was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival of the patients. In vitro study revealed that IL-8 was highly expressed in the established high-metastasis NPC clone S18 relative to the low-metastasis cells. Suppression of IL-8 by short-hairpin RNA reduced the expression of IL-8 in S18 cells and subsequently inhibited migration, invasion, and hepatic metastasis of the cells without influencing cellular growth. Overexpression of IL-8 in S26 cells resulted in increased migration, invasion, and metastasis capabilities of the cells without affecting cellular growth. Exogenous IL-8 enhanced the migration and invasion of low-metastasis CNE-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. An epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) could be induced by IL-8 in various NPC cell lines. The high level of phosphorylated AKT in S18 cells could be suppressed by knocking down IL-8 expression. Further, IL-8-promoted migration and invasion could be abolished by either the application of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or the knock down of AKT expression by using small-interfering RNA. In summary, IL-8 serves as an independent prognostic indicator of overall survival, disease-free survival, and metastasis-free survival for patients with NPC. IL-8 promotes NPC metastasis via autocrine and paracrine means, involving activation of AKT signaling and inducing EMT in NPC cells.Carcinogenesis 05/2012; 33(7):1302-9. DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgs181 · 5.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bmi1, a member of the polycomb group, is elevated and involved in the pathogenesis of various aggressive cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). To date, the mechanisms underlying the high expression of Bmi1 in NPC remain obscure. To gain new insights into the transcriptional regulation of BMI1, we cloned and characterized the promoter region of BMI1. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the region from -783 to +375 exhibited significant promoter activity. Using a series of 5' and 3' deletion promoter constructs in luciferase reporter assays, the regions +167/+232 and -536/-134 were found to be sufficient for full promoter activity. Transcriptional activity of the BMI1 promoter was dependent on the Sp1 binding sites cluster (+181/+214) as well as the E-box elements (-181) and was abolished after mutation of the two cis-elements. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that Sp1 bound to the region from +181 to +214 within the BMI1 promoter. In addition, gain- and loss-of-function analyses revealed that Sp1 augmented Bmi1 expression. Further investigations using immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR disclosed a significant positive correlation between the expression of Sp1 and Bmi1 in NPEC/NPC cells and NPC tissue specimens. In addition, Myc, the known transcription factor for BMI1 in neuroblastomas, also activated the transcription of BMI1 through binding to the E-box element (-181) within its promoter, and showed a positive correlation with the mRNA level of BMI1 in NPC. In conclusion, these findings provide valuable mechanistic insights into the role of Sp1 and c-Myc on BMI1 transcription in NPC, suggesting that targeting Sp1 or c-Myc may be a potential therapeutic strategy for NPC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.FEBS Journal 04/2013; DOI:10.1111/febs.12299 · 3.99 Impact Factor