Intestinal metabolism of two A-type procyanidins using the pig cecum model: detailed structure elucidation of unknown catabolites with Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS).
ABSTRACT Procyanidins, as important secondary plant metabolites in fruits, berries, and beverages such as cacao and tea, are supposed to have positive health impacts, although their bioavailability is yet not clear. One important aspect for bioavailability is intestinal metabolism. The investigation of the microbial catabolism of A-type procyanidins is of great importance due to their more complex structure in comparison to B-type procyanidins. A-type procyanidins exhibit an additional ether linkage between the flavan-3-ol monomers. In this study two A-type procyanidins, procyanidin A2 and cinnamtannin B1, were incubated in the pig cecum model to mimic the degradation caused by the microbiota. Both A-type procyanidins were degraded by the microbiota. Procyanidin A2 as a dimer was degraded by about 80% and cinnamtannin B1 as a trimer by about 40% within 8 h of incubation. Hydroxylated phenolic compounds were quantified as degradation products. In addition, two yet unknown catabolites were identified, and the structures were elucidated by Fourier transform mass spectrometry.
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ABSTRACT: T-2 toxin, a toxic member of the group A trichothecenes, is produced by various Fusarium species that can potentially affect human health. As the intestine plays an important role in the metabolism of T-2 toxin for animals and humans, the degradation and metabolism of T-2 toxin was studied using the pig cecum in vitro model system developed in the author's group. In order to study the intestinal degradation of T-2 toxin by pig microbiota, incubation was performed with the cecal chyme from four different pigs in repeat determinations. A large variation in the intestinal degradation of T-2 toxin was observed for individual pigs. T-2 toxin was degraded almost completely in one out of four pigs, in which only 3.0 ± 0.1 % of T-2 toxin was left after 24 h incubation. However, in the other three incubations with pig cecal suspension, 54.1 ± 11.7-68.9 ± 16.1 % of T-2 toxin were still detectable after 24 h incubation time. The amount of HT-2 toxin was increased along with the incubation time, and HT-2 toxin accounted for 85.2 ± 0.7 % after 24 h in the most active cecum. HT-2 toxin was the only detectable metabolite formed by the intestinal bacteria. This study suggests that the toxicity of T-2 toxin for pigs is caused by the combination of T-2 and HT-2 toxins.Mycotoxin Research 08/2012; 28(3):191-8.