Attributing selected costs to intimate partner violence in a sample of women who have left abusive partners: a social determinants of health approach.
ABSTRACT Selected costs associated with intimate partner violence were estimated for a community sample of 309 Canadian women who left abusive male partners on average 20 months previously. Total annual estimated costs of selected public- and private-sector expenditures attributable to violence were $13,162.39 per woman. This translates to a national annual cost of $6.9 billion for women aged 19–65 who have left abusive partners; $3.1 billion for those experiencing violence within the past three years. Results indicate that costs continue long after leaving, and call for recognition in policy that leaving does not coincide with ending violence.
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ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a crucial public health concern with substantial detrimental effects, including poorer physical and mental health as well as increased difficulties accessing formal services. Most research to date has focused on frequencies, barriers, and facilitators of service use among IPV survivors. However, what remains poorly understood is the perspectives of IPV survivors on their experiences of accessing multiple services after leaving the abusive situations. To answer this, six one-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with survivors using expanded definition of "services," which included social services, shelters, health care, police, legal assistance, and so forth. Data were analyzed using Constant Comparison. Four resulting themes were (a) Positive Aspects, (b) Negative Aspects, (c) Impact of Experiences With Services, and (d) Contextual Factors. Within each of these categories, several sub-categories emerged and are discussed within the context of the literature and recommendations are made for improving services for IPV survivors.Journal of Interpersonal Violence 02/2014; 29(14). DOI:10.1177/0886260513520506 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Relationships have both positive and negative dimensions, yet most research in the area of intimate partner violence (IPV) has focused on social support, and not on social conflict. Based on the data from 309 English-speaking Canadian women who experienced IPV in the past 3 years and were no longer living with the abuser, we tested four hypotheses examining the relationships among severity of past IPV and women's social support, social conflict, and health. We found that the severity of past IPV exerted direct negative effects on women's health. Similarly, both social support and social conflict directly influenced women's health. Social conflict, but not social support, mediated the relationships between IPV severity and health. Finally, social conflict moderated the relationships between social support and women's health, such that the positive effects of social support were attenuated in the presence of high levels of social conflict. These findings highlight that routine assessments of social support and social conflict and the use of strategies to help women enhance support and reduce conflict in their relationships are essential aspects of nursing care.09/2012; 2012:738905. DOI:10.1155/2012/738905
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ABSTRACT: Despite an increase in knowledge about the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV), much less is known about interventions to reduce IPV and its associated impairment. One program that holds promise in preventing IPV and improving outcomes for women exposed to violence is the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP), an evidence-based nurse home visitation program for socially disadvantaged first-time mothers. The present study developed an intervention model and modification process to address IPV within the context of the NFP. This included determining the extent to which the NFP curriculum addressed the needs of women at risk for IPV or its recurrence, along with client, nurse and broader stakeholder perspectives on how best to help NFP clients cope with abusive relationships. Following a preliminary needs assessment, an exploratory multiple case study was conducted to identify the core components of the proposed IPV intervention. This included qualitative interviews with purposeful samples of NFP clients and community stakeholders, and focus groups with nurse home visitors recruited from four NFP sites. Conventional content analysis and constant comparison guided data coding and synthesis. A process for developing complex interventions was then implemented. Based on data from 69 respondents, an IPV intervention was developed that focused on identifying and responding to IPV; assessing a client's level of safety risk associated with IPV; understanding the process of leaving and resolving an abusive relationship and system navigation. A need was identified for the intervention to include both universal elements of healthy relationships and those tailored to a woman's specific level of readiness to promote change within her life. A clinical pathway guides nurses through the intervention, with a set of facilitators and corresponding instructions for each component. NFP clients, nurses and stakeholders identified the need for modifications to the existing NFP program; this led to the development of an intervention that includes universal and targeted components to assist NFP nurses in addressing IPV with their clients. Plans for feasibility testing and evaluation of the effectiveness of the IPV intervention embedded within the NFP, and compared to NFP-only, are discussed.BMC Health Services Research 02/2012; 12:50. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-12-50 · 1.66 Impact Factor