Generation of Stratified Squamous Epithelial Progenitor Cells from Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
ABSTRACT Application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in regenerative medicine will bypass ethical issues associated with use of embryonic stem cells. In addition, patient-specific IPS cells can be useful to elucidate the pathophysiology of genetic disorders, drug screening, and tailor-made medicine. However, in order to apply iPS cells to mitotic tissue, induction of tissue stem cells that give rise to progeny of the target organ is required.
We induced stratified epithelial cells from mouse iPS cells by co-culture with PA6 feeder cells (SDIA-method) with use of BMP4. Clusters of cells positive for the differentiation markers KRT1 or KRT12 were observed in KRT14-positive colonies. We successfully cloned KRT14 and p63 double-positive stratified epithelial progenitor cells from iPS-derived epithelial cells, which formed stratified epithelial sheets consisting of five- to six-polarized epithelial cells in vitro. When these clonal cells were cultured on denuded mouse corneas, a robust stratified epithelial layer was observed with physiological cell polarity including high levels of E-cadherin, p63 and K15 expression in the basal layer and ZO-1 in the superficial layer, recapitulating the apico-basal polarity of the epithelium in vivo.
These results suggest that KRT14 and p63 double-positive epithelial progenitor cells can be cloned from iPS cells in order to produce polarized multilayer epithelial cell sheets.
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ABSTRACT: A common challenge in avian cell biology is the generation of differentiated cell-lines, especially in the keratinocyte lineage. Only a few avian cell-lines are available and very few of them show an interesting differentiation profile. During the last decade, mammalian embryonic stem cell-lines were shown to differentiate into almost all lineages, including keratinocytes. Although chicken embryonic stem cells had been obtained in the 1990s, few differentiation studies toward the ectodermal lineage were reported. Consequently, we explored the differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells toward the keratinocyte lineage by using a combination of stromal induction, ascorbic acid, BMP4 and chicken serum. During the induction period, we observed a downregulation of pluripotency markers and an upregulation of epidermal markers. Three homogenous cell populations were derived, which were morphologically similar to chicken primary keratinocytes, displaying intracellular lipid droplets in almost every pavimentous cell. These cells could be serially passaged without alteration of their morphology and showed gene and protein expression profiles of epidermal markers similar to chicken primary keratinocytes. These cells represent an alternative to the isolation of chicken primary keratinocytes, being less cumbersome to handle and reducing the number of experimental animals used for the preparation of primary cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Stem Cell Research 01/2015; 48(2). DOI:10.1016/j.scr.2015.01.002 · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC) deficiency (LSCD) leads to corneal abnormalities resulting in compromised vision and blindness. LSCD can be potentially treated by transplantation of appropriate cells, which should be easily expandable and bankable. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising source of transplantable LESCs. The purpose of this study was to generate human iPSCs and direct them to timbal differentiation by maintaining them on natural substrata mimicking the native LESC niche, including feederless denuded human amniotic membrane (HAM) and de-epithelialized corneas. These iPSCs were generated with nonintegrating vectors from human primary timbal epithelial cells. This choice of parent cells was supposed to enhance timbal cell differentiation from iPSCs by partial retention of parental epigenetic signatures in iPSCs. When the gene methylation patterns were compared in iPSCs to parental LESCs using Illumina global methylation arrays, limbal-derived iPSCs had fewer unique methylation changes than fibroblast-derived iPSCs, suggesting retention of epigenetic memory during reprogramming. Limbal iPSCs cultured for 2 weeks on HAM developed markedly higher expression of putative LESC markers ABCG2, Delta Np63 alpha, keratins 14, 15, and 17, N-cadherin, and TrkA than did fibroblast iPSCs. On HAM culture, the methylation profiles of select timbal iPSC genes (including NTRK1, coding for TrkA protein) became closer to the parental cells, but fibroblast iPSCs remained closer to parental fibroblasts. On denuded air-lifted corneas, timbal iPSCs even upregulated differentiated corneal keratins 3 and 12. These data emphasize the importance of the natural niche and timbal tissue of origin in generating iPSCs as a LESC source with translational potential for LSCD treatment.Stem Cells 08/2014; 3(9). DOI:10.5966/sctm.2014-0076 · 7.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cell fate and function can be regulated and reprogrammed by intrinsic genetic program, extrinsic factors and niche microenvironment. Direct reprogramming has shown many advantages in the field of cellular reprogramming. Here we tried the possibility to generate corneal endothelia (CE) -like cells from human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) by the non-genetic direct reprogramming of recombinant cell-penetrating proteins Oct4/Klf4/Sox2 (PTD-OKS) and small molecules (purmorphamine, RG108 and other reprogramming chemical reagents), as well as biomimetic platforms of simulate microgravity (SMG) bioreactor. Co-cultured with corneal cells and decellularized corneal ECM, Reprogrammed ADSCs revealed spherical growth and positively expressing Nanog for RT-PCR analysis and CD34 for immunofluorescence staining after 7 days-treatment of both purmorphamine and PTD-OKS (P-OKS) and in SMG culture. ADSCs changed to CEC polygonal morphology from spindle shape after the sequential non-genetic direct reprogramming and biomimetic platforms. At the same time, induced cells converted to weakly express CD31, AQP-1 and ZO-1. These findings demonstrated that the treatments were able to promote the stem-cell reprogramming for human ADSCs. Our study also indicates for the first time that SMG rotary cell culture system can be used as a non-genetic means to promote direct reprogramming. Our methods of reprogramming provide an alternative strategy for engineering patient-specific multipotent cells for cellular plasticity research and future autologous CEC replacement therapy that avoids complications associated with the use of human pluripotent stem cells.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109856. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109856 · 3.53 Impact Factor