Article

Distinct and overlapping effector functions of expanded human CD4+, CD8α+ and CD4-CD8α- invariant natural killer T cells.

Department of Immunology and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 12/2011; 6(12):e28648. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028648
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have diverse immune stimulatory/regulatory activities through their ability to release cytokines and to kill or transactivate other cells. Activation of iNKT cells can protect against multiple diseases in mice but clinical trials in humans have had limited impact. Clinical studies to date have targeted polyclonal mixtures of iNKT cells and we proposed that their subset compositions will influence therapeutic outcomes. We sorted and expanded iNKT cells from healthy donors and compared the phenotypes, cytotoxic activities and cytokine profiles of the CD4(+), CD8α(+) and CD4(-)CD8α(-) double-negative (DN) subsets. CD4(+) iNKT cells expanded more readily than CD8α(+) and DN iNKT cells upon mitogen stimulation. CD8α(+) and DN iNKT cells most frequently expressed CD56, CD161 and NKG2D and most potently killed CD1d(+) cell lines and primary leukemia cells. All iNKT subsets released Th1 (IFN-γ and TNF-α) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) cytokines. Relative amounts followed a CD8α>DN>CD4 pattern for Th1 and CD4>DN>CD8α for Th2. All iNKT subsets could simultaneously produce IFN-γ and IL-4, but single-positivity for IFN-γ or IL-4 was strikingly rare in CD4(+) and CD8α(+) fractions, respectively. Only CD4(+) iNKT cells produced IL-9 and IL-10; DN cells released IL-17; and none produced IL-22. All iNKT subsets upregulated CD40L upon glycolipid stimulation and induced IL-10 and IL-12 secretion by dendritic cells. Thus, subset composition of iNKT cells is a major determinant of function. Use of enriched CD8α(+), DN or CD4(+) iNKT cells may optimally harness the immunoregulatory properties of iNKT cells for treatment of disease.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
222 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human γδ T cells expressing the Vγ9Vδ2 T cell receptor can induce maturation of dendritic cells (DC) into antigen-presenting cells (APC) and B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Since B cells are capable of presenting antigens to T cells, we investigated if Vγ9Vδ2 T cells can influence antigen-presentation by these cells. We report that Vγ9Vδ2 T cells induced expression of CD86, HLA-DR, and CD40 by B cells and stimulated the release of IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α, and IgG, IgA, and IgM. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells also augmented the ability of B cells to stimulate proliferation but not IFN-γ or IL-4 release by alloreactive T cells. In contrast, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells induced expression of CD86 and HLA-DR and the release of IFN-γ, IL-6, and TNF-α by DC and these DC stimulated proliferation and IFN-γ production by conventional T cells. Furthermore, CD86, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and cell contact were found to be important in DC activation by Vγ9Vδ2 T cells but not in the activation of B cells. These data suggest that Vγ9Vδ2 T cells can induce maturation of B cells and DC into APC, but while they prime DC to stimulate T helper 1 (TH1) responses, they drive maturation of B cells into APC that can stimulate different T cell responses. Thus, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells can control different arms of the immune system through selective activation of B cells and DC in vitro, which may have important applications in immunotherapy and for vaccine adjuvants.
    Frontiers in Immunology 12/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cluster of differentiation 1 (CD1) represents a family of proteins which is involved in lipid-based antigen presentation. Primarily, antigen presenting cells, like B cells, express CD1 proteins. Here, we examined the cell-surface distribution of CD1d, a subtype of CD1 receptors, on B lymphocytes. Fluorescence labeling methods, including fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET),were employed to investigate plasma membrane features of CD1d receptors. High FRET efficiency was observed between CD1d and MHC I heavy chain (MHC I-HC), β2-microglobulin(β2m) and MHC II proteins in the plasma membrane. In addition, overexpression of CD1d reduced the expression of MHC II and increased the expression of MHC I-HC and β2m proteins on the cell-surface. Surprisingly, β2m dependent CD1d isoform constituted only ~15% of the total membrane CD1d proteins. Treatment of B cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) / simvastatin caused protein rearrangement; however, FRET demonstrated only minimal effect of these chemicals on the association between CD1d and GM1 ganglioside on cell-surface.Likewise, a modest effect was only observed in a co-culture assay between MβCD/simvastatin treated C1R–CD1d cells and invariant natural killer T cells on measuring secreted cytokines (IFNγ and IL4). Furthermore,CD1d rich regions were highly sensitive to low concentration of Triton X-100. Physical proximity between CD1d, MHC and GM1 molecules was also detected in the plasma membrane. An intricate relationship between CD1d, MHC, and lipid species was found on the membrane of human B cells. Organization of CD1d on the plasma membrane might be critical for its biological functions.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2014; 1840(1):667-80. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Natural killer T (NKT) cells bridge across innate and adaptive immune responses and have an important role in chronic viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). NKT cells are depleted during chronic HIV infection, but the timing, drivers and implications of this NKT cell depletion are poorly understood. We studied human peripheral blood NKT cell levels, phenotype and function in 31 HIV-infected subjects not on antiretroviral treatment from a mean of 4 months to 2 years after HIV infection. We found that peripheral CD4(+) NKT cells were substantially depleted and dysfunctional by 4 months after HIV infection. The depletion of CD4(+) NKT cells was more marked than the depletion of total CD4(+) T cells. Further, the early depletion of NKT cells correlated with CD4(+) T-cell decline, but not HIV viral levels. Levels of activated CD4(+) T cells correlated with the loss of NKT cells. Our studies suggest that the early loss of NKT cells is associated with subsequent immune destruction during HIV infection.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 29 April 2014; doi:10.1038/icb.2014.25.
    Immunology and Cell Biology 04/2014; · 4.21 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
56 Downloads
Available from
Jun 5, 2014