Surgical treatment for locally advanced lung cancer in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient.
ABSTRACT Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the most common cause of death among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These patients are known to be at increased risk for lung cancer compared with the general population. Recently, HIV-infected patients who need surgical treatment of lung cancers are becoming increasingly common. We present a 60-year-old HIV-infected man with locally advanced lung cancer with a helper T-lymphocyte count of 195 cells/μl at the time of lung cancer diagnosis. HAART was initiated before surgery, and extended resection was performed without discontinuance of HAART. The patient successfully recovered from surgery without complication.
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ABSTRACT: Matched patients who test positive or negative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are undergoing comparable operations have similar complication rates and outcomes. A retrospective study of surgical outcomes in HIV-infected and matched HIV-noninfected patients. Baseline information including HIV-related laboratory results, complications, and mortality was collected from printed and electronic records through 12 postoperative months. Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program-Northern California, an integrated health organization with more than 3 million members, including more than 5000 HIV-infected members. From July 1,1997, through June 30, 2002, HIV-infected members undergoing surgical procedures were matched 1:1 with HIV-noninfected patients undergoing surgical procedures by type, location, and year of surgery as well as by sex and age. Surgical procedures studied included appendectomy, arthrotomy or arthroscopy, bowel resection, cholecystectomy, cardiothoracic procedures, hernia repair, hysterectomy, hip or knee replacement, laparoscopy or laparotomy, and mammoplasty. Complications and mortality through 12 postoperative months, comparisons between HIV-infected and HIV-noninfected patients using matched-pair analyses, and HIV-infected cohort data were analyzed using the Fisher exact test and logistic regression. Of 332 HIV-infected-HIV-noninfected pairs (mean age, 46.7 years; male sex, 91%), more than 95.0% were followed up through 12 postoperative months or until their deaths. Pairs had similar comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and number of postoperative surgical visits (P>.05, all variables). Among HIV-infected patients, the median years with HIV infection was 8.4 years; median CD4 T-cell count was 379/microL; 61.5% of these patients had an HIV RNA level less than 500 copies per milliliter; and 68% were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Various complications were no more frequent among HIV-infected than in HIV-noninfected patients (11.1% vs 10.2%; P = .79), except for pneumonia (P = .04). There were more deaths within the 12 postoperative months in HIV-infected patients (10/332 vs 2/332; P = .02); 2 patients died 30 days or less after being operated on. Among HIV-infected patients, viral load of 30 000 copies per milliliter or more was associated with increased complications (adjusted odds ratio, 2.95; P = .007), but a CD4 cell count less than 200/muL was not associated with poorer outcomes. The HIV-infected patients had more incidences of postoperative pneumonia and higher 12-month mortality, although other operative outcomes were comparable for HIV-infected and HIV-noninfected patients. Viral suppression to fewer than 30 000 copies per milliliter reduced surgical complications.Archives of Surgery 12/2006; 141(12):1238-45. DOI:10.1001/archsurg.141.12.1238 · 4.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To estimate summary standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of non-AIDS cancers among HIV-infected individuals compared with general population rates overall and stratified by gender, AIDS, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. A meta-analysis using SIRs from 18 studies of non-AIDS cancer in HIV-infected individuals. SIRs for non-AIDS cancers in HIV-infected individuals and 95% confidence limits (CLs) were abstracted from each study. Random effects meta-analyses were used to estimate summary SIRs. Modifications by gender, AIDS, and HAART era were estimated with meta-regression. Four thousand seven hundred ninety-seven non-AIDS cancers occurred among 625,716 HIV-infected individuals. SIRs for several cancers were elevated. In particular, cancers associated with infections, such as anal (SIR = 28; 95% CL 21 to 35), liver (SIR = 5.6; 95% CL 4.0 to 7.7), and Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 11; 95% CL 8.8 to 15) and smoking, such as lung (SIR = 2.6; 95% CL 2.1 to 3.1), kidney (SIR = 1.7; 95% CL 1.3 to 2.2), and laryngeal (SIR = 1.5; 95% CL 1.1 to 2.0). AIDS was associated with greater SIRs for Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, lung, brain, and all non-AIDS cancers combined. HIV-infected individuals may be at an increased risk of developing non-AIDS cancers, particularly those associated with infections and smoking. An association with advanced immune suppression was suggested for certain cancers.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 09/2009; 52(5):611-22. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b327ca · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prior reports of an increased risk of lung cancer in HIV-infected individuals have not always included control groups, nor considered other risk factors such as tobacco exposure. We sought to determine the role of HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on lung cancer incidence in 2,651 HIV-infected and 898 HIV-uninfected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). A prospective study of the incidence rates of lung cancer was conducted, with cases identified through medical records, death certificates, and state cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare lung cancer incidence among HIV-infected and uninfected WIHS participants, with population-based expectations using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry. Behavioral characteristics in the WIHS were compared to US women by age and race adjusting the population-based data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III. Incidence rates of lung cancer were similar among HIV-infected and uninfected WIHS women. Lung cancer SIRs were increased in both HIV-infected and -uninfected women compared with population expectations, but did not differ by HIV status. Among HIV-infected women, lung cancer incidence rates were similar in pre-HAART and HAART eras. All WIHS women with lung cancer were smokers; the risk of lung cancer increased with cumulative tobacco exposure. WIHS women were statistically more likely to smoke than US women studied in NHANES III. HIV infection is strongly associated with smoking behaviors that increase lung cancer risk. The role of HIV itself remains to be clarified.Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2010; 28(9):1514-9. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2009.25.6149 · 18.43 Impact Factor